Nutritional Anthropology

The Bond Effect

The science and art of living the way nature intended

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Geoff refers often to many peer-reviewed articles in his Bond Briefings and elsewhere. Here you can download the full text (pdf) of some of them

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Geoff Bond


Paleo Harvest Information Page

161 Sugar Industry and Coronary Heart Disease Research. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Sep 12. 
doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5394. 
Early warning signals of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of sugar (sucrose) emerged in the 1950s. We examined Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) internal documents, historical reports, and statements relevant to early debates about the dietary causes of CHD and assembled findings chronologically into a narrative case study. The SRF sponsored its first CHD research project in 1965, a literature review published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which singled out fat and cholesterol as the dietary causes of CHD and downplayed evidence that sucrose consumption was also a risk factor. The SRF set the review's objective, contributed articles for inclusion, and received drafts. The SRF's funding and role was not disclosed. Together with other recent analyses of sugar industry documents, our findings suggest the industry sponsored a research program in the 1960s and 1970s that successfully cast doubt about the hazards of sucrose while promoting fat as the dietary culprit in CHD. 
160 Is the College Cave Age About to End? (Part 2), Mark C. Taylor - May 20, 2012 
"When I started teaching at Williams College in 1972, many of my senior colleagues who were superb teachers and genuine intellectuals had never published a single word. By the time I came up for tenure a few years later, I was expected to have published a book and several articles. What changed was the job market, which suddenly dried up in 1970."
159 The Importance of Honey Consumption in Human Evolution, Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of Human Nourishment, Alyssa N. Crittenden (2011); 19:4, 257-273, 
DOI: 10.1080/07409710.2011.630618 
It has been suggested that honey may have been an important food source for early members of the genus Homo, yet the importance of meat and savanna plant foods continue to be stressed as the most relevant foods in dietary reconstructions. Here, the importance of honey and bee larvae in hominin diets is explored. Ethnographic reports, examples of Paleolithic rock art, and evidence from non-human primates are used to show that early hominins likely targeted beehives using the Oldowan tool kit. The consumption of honey and bee larvae likely provided significant amounts of energy, supplementing meat and plant foods. The ability to find and exploit beehives using stone toolsmay have been an innovation that allowed early Homo to nutritionally out-compete other species and may have provided critical energy to fuel the enlarging hominin brain.
158 Honey revisited: a reappraisal of honey in pre-industrial diets. Br J Nutr. 1996 Apr;75(4):513-20. Allsop KA...
In pre-industrial times, honey was the main source of concentrated sweetness in the diets of many peoples. There are no precise figures for per capita consumption during most periods in history because honey was part of either a hunter-gatherer or subsistence economy. Until now, historians and food writers have proposed that it was a scarce commodity available only to a wealthy few. We do know, however, that in a cash economy honey was sold in large units (gallons and even barrels) and it was present in such abundance that mead, made from honey, was a common alcoholic drink. A reappraisal of the evidence from the Stone Age, Antiquity, the Middle Ages and early Modern times suggests that ordinary people ate much larger quantities of honey than has previously been acknowledged. Intakes at various times during history may well have rivalled our current consumption of refined sugar. There are implications therefore for the role of sugar in modern diets. Refined sugar may not have displaced more nutrient-rich items from our present-day diets but only the nutritionally comparable food, honey.
157 Acid-Base Tables: From McCance & Widdowson, Composition of Foods, HMSO; 1960

(Scroll down to second page in each case)

a) Title Page and Acid-Base definition

b) Condiments, Cakes, Pastries

c) Egg, Cheese, Sauces, Soups

d) Fats, Oils, Milk, Milk Products

d) Fish

e) Fruit

f) Meat, Poultry, Game

g) Puddings

f) Vegetables, Nuts

156 James H. O’Keefe et al. Exercising for Health and Longevity vs Peak Performance: Different Regimens for Different Goals. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.07.007.  Studies consistently show that regular moderate intensity physical activity (PA) is highly beneficial for long-term cardiovascular (CV) health.2-4 Improving the CRF from low to moderate to high will progressively improve CV prognosis and overall survival.5 However, the survival benefits from improvements in the CRF plateau at about 10 metabolic equivalents (with 1 metabolic equivalent equal to an oxygen consumption of 3.5 mL O2/kg body weight per minute), with no additional survival benefit accruing from higher CRF levels.  (Bond Briefing September 2014)
155 Diabetes Care. 2012 Aug;35(8):1798-808. Epub 2012 Jul 9. Nonnutritive sweeteners: current use and health perspectives: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association. Gardner C et al. The present statement from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association addresses the potential role of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) in helping Americans to adhere to this recommendation in the context of current usage and health perspectives. (Bond Briefing October 2014)
154 Chan Y, K, Estaki M, Gibson D, L, Clinical Consequences of Diet-Induced Dysbiosis. Ann Nutr Metab 2013;63(suppl 2):28-40. Various disease states are associated with an imbalance of protective and pathogenic bacteria in the gut, termed dysbiosis. Current evidence reveals that dietary factors affect the microbial ecosystem in the gut. Changes to community structure of the intestinal microbiota are not without consequence considering the wide effects that the microbes have on both local and systemic immunity. The goal of this review is to give insight into the importance of gut microbiota in disease development and the possible therapeutic interventions in clinical settings. (Bond Briefing September 2014)
153 Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;78(4):742-8. Different glycemic indexes of breakfast cereals are not due to glucose entry into blood but to glucose removal by tissue. Schenk S et al. 
The lower GI of BC than of CF was not due to a lower rate of appearance of glucose but instead to an earlier postprandial hyperinsulinemia and an earlier increase in the rate of disappearance of glucose, which attenuated the increase in the plasma glucose concentration.
(Bond Briefing August 2014)
152 P M Kris-Etherton et al. Effects of a DASH-like diet containing lean beef on vascular health. Journal of Human Hypertension, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/jhh.2014.34. A moderate protein DASH-like diet including lean beef decreased SBP in normotensive individuals. The inclusion of lean beef in a heart healthy diet also reduced peripheral vascular constriction. (Bond Briefing August 2014)
151 Flaxseed - a Nutritional Punch; International Food Research Journal 20(2): 519-525 (2013); Ganorkar, P. M. and Jain, R. K. Flaxseed contains good amount of α-Linolenic Acid (ALA), protein, dietary fiber, lignan, specifically Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Several studies reveal that these components work well for nutritional benefit in human being. Flaxseed proteins are relatively high in arginine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid whereas lysine, methionine and cystine are limiting amino acid. Flaxseed dietary fiber exhibits positive effect to reduce constipation, to keep better bowel movement and as hypocholestermic agent. SDG has antioxidant activity and free oxygen radical scavenging activity. Consequently, it may have anticancer property. To some extent, SDG helps in bone development. Cyanogenic glycosides and linatine are antinutrients in flaxseed. As compared to soyabean and canola, flaxseed antinutrient effect on human health is much lower. (Bond Briefing ??? 2014)
150 Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research; Volume 2010, Article ID 423087, 12 pages; doi:10.1155/2010/423087; Research Article; Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths; Robert D. Young et al. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of YouthMyth (substance), Shangri-LaMyth (geographic),Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety,Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. (Bond Briefing July 2014)
149 Ayerza, R. (h) and Coates, W. 2001. Omega-3 enriched eggs: The influence of dietary a-linolenic fatty acid source on egg production and composition. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 355–362. A study was conducted to assess the effect of replacing chia with flaxseed as a source of a-linolenic acid in laying hen feed. Five diets, identified as T0 through T4, containing 0-0, 7-3, 9-5, 11.5-2.5 and 14-0% whole chia seed and whole flaxseed, respectively, were fed to 240 White Shaver laying hens, at 60 wk of age. No difference (P > 0.05) in egg production, egg weight, yolk weight and albumen weight were found among treatments. Total w-3 acid percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in the yolks from the hens fed the a-linolenic acid-enriched diets, than in those fed the control diet. Of the three treatments that had any combination of chia and flaxseed comprising 14% of the diet, T2 yielded a lower (P < 0.05) w-3 content in the yolk, than did T3 and T4. A taste panel found no difference (P > 0.05) in flavor or off-flavor among treatments; however, panel preferences were lower for eggs produced by hens fed the highest level of flaxseed (T2). This study showed no advantages to replacing chia with flaxseed to produce w-3 enriched eggs. Greater availability of flaxseed, however, might make it more attractive in some markets. 
148 Phyllis C. Zee et al. Timing and Intensity of Light Correlate with Body Weight in Adults. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (4): e92251. Sleeping out of doors, our ancient ancestors woke up to the bright tropical morning sunlight. So, over the eons, did our bodies come to rely on it being there?
“Yes”, says a recent study. It finds that the timing, intensity, and duration of light exposure we get regulate how fat we get.
(Bond Briefing May 2014)
147 Pam Jarvis et al. On ‘becoming social’: the importance of collaborative free play in childhood. International Journal of Play, 2014; vol 3, 1, 53-68. 
There is increasing concern about declining mental health amongst children in the UK and the USA. Evolutionary and anthropological theorists have begun to build a theory linking this situation to decreasing opportunities to engage in free play.
(Bond Briefing April 2014)
146 BMJ. 2012 Jul 18;345:e4737. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e4737. The truth about sports drinks. Cohen D. 
(Bond Briefing April 2014)
145 Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Mar;34(3):362-6. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, et al. 
To determine the effect of different foods on the blood glucose, 62 commonly eaten foods and sugars were fed individually to groups of 5 to 10 healthy fasting volunteers. Blood glucose levels were measured over 2 h, and expressed as a percentage of the area under the glucose response curve when the same amount of carbohydrate was taken as glucose.
(Bond Briefing April 2014)
144 Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):5-56. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Foster-Powell K1, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC. This revised table contains almost 3 times the number of foods listed in the original table (first published in this Journal in 1995) and contains nearly 1300 data entries derived from published and unpublished verified sources, representing > 750 different types of foods tested with the use of standard methods. The revised table also lists the glycemic load associated with the consumption of specified serving sizes of different foods. (Bond Briefing April 2014)
143 Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):237S-243S. Glycemic impact, glycemic glucose equivalents, glycemic index, and glycemic load: definitions, distinctions, and implications. Monro JA, Shaw M. 
Glycemic impact, defined as "the weight of glucose that would induce a glycemic response equivalent to that induced by a given amount of food" (American Association of Cereal Chemists Glycemic Carbohydrate Definition Committee, 2007), expresses relative glycemic potential in grams of glycemic glucose equivalents (GGEs) per specified amount of food. Therefore, GGE behaves as a food component, and (relative) glycemic impact (RGI) is the GGE intake responsible for a glycemic response. RGI differs from glycemic index (GI) because it refers to food and depends on food intake, whereas GI refers to carbohydrate and is a unitless index value unresponsive to food intake.
(Bond Briefing April 2014)
142 Open Heart 2014;1: doi:10.1136/openhrt-2013-000032 The cardiometabolic consequences of replacing saturated fats with carbo­hydrates or Ω-6 polyunsaturated fats: Do the dietary guidelines have it wrong? James J DiNicolantonio. 
Conclusions: The benefits of a low-fat diet (particularly a diet replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates or Ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) are severely challenged. Dietary guidelines should assess the totality of the evidence and strongly reconsider their recommendations for replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates or Ω-6 polyunsaturated fats.
(Bond Briefing March 2014)

Rajiv Chowdhury et al, 'Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis', Ann Intern Med. 2014; 160(6):398-406-406. doi: 10.7326/M13-1788.
Conclusions: Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats.
(Bond Briefing March 2014)

140 Sugar and the heart: old ideas revisited; BMJ 2013;346:e7800 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e7800 (Published 15 January 2013); Watts G.
“Diets high in added sugar raise heart disease risk”; “One soft drink a day raises heart attack danger”; “Added sugars increase heart disease risk.” Few things are more prey to fad and fashion than alleged dietary influences on health. So the word “sugar” in headlines where, for 30 years, we’ve been accustomed to expect the word “fat” may be little more than a caprice. Alternatively it may indicate a more substantial change. Which is perhaps why Penguin Books is reissuing Pure, White and Deadly, John Yudkin’s valiant, 40 year old attempt to warn us against our lust for sucrose.
(Bond Briefing March 2014)

J Epidemiol Community Health doi:10.1136/jech-2013-203500.  Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data. Oyinlola Oyebode et al. 
Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with decreased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR for 7+ portions 0.67 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.78), reference category <1 portion). This association was more pronounced when excluding deaths within a year of baseline (0.58 (0.46 to 0.71)). Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with reduced cancer (0.75 (0.59–0.96)) and cardiovascular mortality (0.69 (0.53 to 0.88)). Vegetables may have a stronger association with mortality than fruit (HR for 2 to 3 portions 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) and 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98), respectively). Consumption of vegetables (0.85 (0.81 to 0.89) per portion) or salad (0.87 (0.82 to 0.92) per portion) were most protective, while frozen/canned fruit consumption was apparently associated with increased mortality (1.17 (1.07 to 1.28) per portion). 
Conclusions A robust inverse association exists between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality, with benefits seen in up to 7+ portions daily.
(Bond Briefing March 2014)


Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis. Christopher Ramsden et al; BMJ 2013;346:e8707
 Advice to substitute polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats is a key component of worldwide dietary guidelines for coronary heart disease risk reduction. However, clinical benefits of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega 6 linoleic acid, have not been established. In this cohort, substituting dietary linoleic acid in place of saturated fats increased the rates of death from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. An updated meta-analysis of linoleic acid intervention trials showed no evidence of cardiovascular benefit. These findings could have important implications for worldwide dietary advice to substitute omega 6 linoleic acid, or polyunsaturated fats in general, for saturated fats.
(Bond Briefing March 2014)


Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;91(6):1764-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.29099. Epub 2010 Apr 7. Intake of carbohydrates compared with intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: importance of the glycemic index. Jakobsen MU1,et al.
This study suggests that replacing SFAs with carbohydrates with low-GI values is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing SFAs with carbohydrates with high-GI values is associated with a higher risk of MI.


Three Daily Servings of Reduced-Fat Milk - An Evidence-Based Recommendation? David S. Ludwig, MD, PhD1,3;  JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(9):788-789. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.2408
In light of research linking sugar-sweetened beverage consumption to obesity, the US Department of Agriculture, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other organizations have formulated recommendations on healthy beverages. These guidelines consistently recommend limiting consumption of all calorie-containing liquids, except reduced-fat milk, of which people inmost age groups are encouraged toconsume3 cups daily. This article questions the scientific rationale for promoting reduced-fat milk consumption at these levels in children and adults and reconsiders the role of cow’s milk in human nutrition. 
(Bond Briefing Feb 2014)




PLoS One. 2013 Oct 15;8(10):e77585. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077585. eCollection 2013. Blueberry and mulberry juice prevent obesity development in C57BL/6 mice. Wu T1, et al.
OBJECTIVES: To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. DESIGN: And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. RESULTS: Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin.
(Bond Briefing Feb 2014)  


J Food Sci. 2009 Apr;74(3):H97-H103. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01091.x. Influence of cooking methods on antioxidant activity of vegetables. Jiménez-Monreal AM1 et al. 
The influence of home cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, pressure-cooking, griddling, frying, and baking) on the antioxidant activity of vegetables has been evaluated in 20 vegetables, using different antioxidant activity assays (lipoperoxyl and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and TEAC). Artichoke was the only vegetable that kept its very high scavenging-lipoperoxyl radical capacity in all the cooking methods. The highest losses of LOO. scavenging capacity were observed in cauliflower after boiling and microwaving, pea after boiling, and zucchini after boiling and frying. Beetroot, green bean, and garlic kept their antioxidant activity after most cooking treatments. Swiss chard and pepper lost OH. scavenging capacity in all the processes. Celery increased its antioxidant capacity in all the cooking methods, except boiling when it lost 14%. Analysis of the ABTS radical scavenging capacity of the different vegetables showed that the highest losses occurred in garlic with all the methods, except microwaving. Among the vegetables that increased their TEAC values were green bean, celery, and carrot after all cooking methods (except green bean after boiling). These 3 types of vegetables showed a low ABTS radical scavenging capacity. According to the method of analysis chosen, griddling, microwave cooking, and baking alternately produce the lowest losses, while pressure-cooking and boiling lead to the greatest losses; frying occupies an intermediate position. In short, water is not the cook's best friend when it comes to preparing vegetables.
(Bond Briefing Feb 2014)  














126- Heat-Treatments-Sesame-Antinutrients


J Am Board Fam Pract. 1999 Jul-Aug;12(4):315-33. Critical appraisal of the literature. Miser WF. Physicians also encounter constantly changing recommendations for clinical practice and an information jungle. With 6 million medical articles published each year, the amount of information available is overwhelming. If clinicians, trying to keep up with all of the literature, were to read two articles per day, in just 1 year, they would fall 82 centuries behind in their reading! Despite this gargantuan volume of medical literature, less than 15 percent of all articles published on a particular topic are useful. Most articles are not peer-reviewed, are sponsored by those with commercial interests, or arrive free in the mail. Even articles published in the most prestigious journals are far from perfect. 


 Lancet. 1968 Jun 22;1(7556):1329-33. Fatty-acid ratios in free-living and domestic animals. Possible implications for atheroma. Crawford MA. A comparison has been made of the tissue fatty acids in domestic bovids from free-living and undisturbed habitats... These differences may arise partly because oil-rich vegetation which is available to free-living animals has been eliminated from hte diet of animals raised on grassland. These differences may be related to arterial disease. (Bond Briefing Jan 2014)


PLoS One. 2013 Dec 17;8(12):e83756. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083756. eCollection 2013.
A Metabolomic Analysis of Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Mediated Attenuation of Western Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in LDLR (-/-) Mice. Depner CM et al. DHA regulation of hepatic SFA, MUFA, PUFA, sphingomyelin, PUFA-derived oxidized lipids and S-lactoylglutathione may explain the protective effects of DHA against WD-induced NASH in LDLR(-/-) mice.
(Bond Briefing Dec 2013)


High heels as supernormal stimuli: How wearing high heels affects judgements of female attractiveness; Paul H. Morris et al; Evolution and Human Behavior 1 May 2013 (volume 34 issue 3 Pages 176-181 DOI: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.11.006). There is a strong contemporary association between high heels and female sexuality. One motivation for women wearing high heels is that it artificially increases the femininity of gait. Participants judged the females in the heels condition as significantly more attractive (with a large effect size) than the females in the flat shoe condition. Biomechanical analyses revealed that wearing high heels led to increased femininity of gait including reduced stride length and increased rotation and tilt of the hips. We conclude that high heels exaggerate sex specific aspects of female gait and women walking in high heels could be regarded as a supernormal stimulus. (Bond Briefing Dec 2013)


Stone NJ et al. 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Athero-sclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013; doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.002. New cholesterol guidelines for identifying adults at risk for heart disease represent the biggest change in such expert advice in more than 25 years, according to Loyola University Health System preventive cardiology experts. "This is very big news," said Binh An P. Phan, MD. "These new guidelines could dramatically affect how cholesterol is treated." Patients generally would be put on a cholesterol-reducing statin medication based on a formula that estimates their risk for cardiovascular disease. This is a major change from previous guidelines that placed more emphasis on patients' cholesterol numbers. (Bond Briefing Dec 2013)


Paleo Nutrition 25 years on. Nutrition in Clinical Practice; Volume 25 Number 6; December 2010 594-602 Konner M et al. A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput.


Net acid load in Hunter-Gatherers; Estimation of the diet-dependent net acid load in 229 worldwide; historically studied hunter-gatherer societies; Alexander Strohle et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:406–12. Our data confirm that the NEAP of hunter-gatherer diets becomes progressively more positive as P:A ratios decline. The high reliance on animal-based foods of a worldwide sample of historically studied hunter-gatherer populations renders their diets net acid producing in ’40–60% of subgroups of P:A ratios. Only further investigations can show the implications of these findings in determining the NEAP of human ancestral diets.


Celiac and gluten diseases; Helms S; Altern Med Rev 2005;10(3):172-192; Celiac disease develops from an autoimmune response to specific dietary grains that contain gluten. Diagnosis can be made based on the classical presentation of diarrhea, fatty stools, and abdominal bloating and cramping, as well as the presence of specific serum antibodies. In addition, gluten ingestion has increasingly been found to be associated with other conditions not usually correlated with gluten intolerance. The subsequent diversity of the clinical presentation in these cases can complicate decision-making and delay treatment initiation in conditions such as ataxia, headaches, arthritis, neuropathy, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and others. This review explores the etiology and pathology of celiac disease, presents support for the relationship between gluten and other diseases, and provides effective screening and treatment protocols.


DNA Divergence among Hominoids; Caccone et al; Evolution; Aug 1989; vol 43; no 5/


Adverse effects of Homeopathy. Adverse effects of homeopathy: a systematic review of published case reports and case series; P. Posadzki et al. Int J Clin Pract, December 2012, 66, 12, 1178–1188. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12026; Overall, AEs (adverse effects) ranged from mild-to-severe and included four fatalities. The most common AEs were allergic reactions and intoxications. Rhus toxidendron was the most frequently implicated homeopathic remedy. Conclusion: Homeopathy has the potential to harm patients and consumers in both direct and indirect ways. Clinicians should be aware of its risks and advise their patients accordingly.


Body-Shape-Index Predicts Mortality Independently of BMI. PLoS ONE | 1 July 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 7 | e39504; A New Body Shape Index (ABSI) Predicts Mortality Hazard Independently of Body Mass Index Nir Y. Krakauer  Conclusions: Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors.


Chloride & Hypertension; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 94, pp. 14748–14752, December 1997 Medical Sciences Genetically determined chloride-sensitive hypertension and stroke Masae Tanaka et al; These observations demonstrate that with respect to both severity of hypertension and frequency of stroke the phenotypic expression of the SHRSP is (i) either increased or decreased, depending on whether the anionic component of the potassium salt supplemented is, or is not, Cl2; (ii) increased by supplementing Cl2 without supplementing Na1, and despite supplementing K1; and hence (iii) both selectively Cl2-sensitive and Cl2-determined. The observations suggest that in the SHRSP selectively supplemented with Cl2 the likelihood of stroke depends on the extent to which both BP and PRA increase.


Lipids Health Dis. 2007 Sep 25;6:25. Bovine milk in human nutrition--a review. Haug A, Høstmark AT, Harstad OM. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. 


Eur J Dent. 2009 Apr;3(2):81-2. Controversies around Xylitol. Söderling E. Systematic reviews are currently required to update guidelines for caries prevention. As such, critical evaluation of the existing literature is a positive goal, but if it leads to a situation where no treatment guidelines can be given, something is wrong. This also applies to xylitol studies. Though strict inclusion criteria prevent conclusions based on systematic reviews of the literature, evidence-based treatment guidelines can still be given for the use of xylitol. Xylitol is a useful adjunct to traditional methods for caries control and prevention. Caries prevention with xylitol has been claimed to be expensive, but if true primary prevention is obtained, as demonstrated in the mother-child study,6,7 it may be worth it. (Bond Briefing Dec 2013)


J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2013;16(7):399-451. Sucralose, a synthetic organochlorine sweetener: overview of biological issues. Schiffman SS et al. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures generates chloropropanols, a toxic class of compound. Sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. (Bond Briefing Mar 2014)


Proc Biol Sci. 2004 Nov 7;271(1554):2217-21. Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity. Camperio-Ciani A et al. If male homosexuality has a genetic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? We found that female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives. Homosexuals have more maternal than paternal male homosexual relatives, homosexual males are more often later-born than first-born and that they have more older brothers than older sisters. (Bond Briefing Dec 2013)


Sex And Searching For Children Among Aka Foragers And Ngandu Farmers Of Central Africa ; African Study Monographs, 31(3): 107-125, October 2010; Hewlett BS.
This study examines the reasons for having sex, the frequency of sex (coitus) per night, sexual practices during the post-partum sex taboo, and beliefs and practices regarding homosexuality, masturbation, the use of sexual stimulants and a variety of other sexual behaviors. For adults 18–45 years of age, the average frequency of sex per night was about three times among the Aka and two times among the Ngandu. Aka averaged two days and Ngandu averaged three days between days with sexual activity. Homosexuality and masturbation were rare or nonexistent in both groups. Aka men had the greatest knowledge and most frequent use of plants as sexual stimulants.
(Bond Briefing Dec 2013)  


De novo lipogenesis, lipid kinetics, and whole-body lipid balances in humans after acute alcohol consumption. Am J Clin Nutr November 1999 vol. 70 no. 5 928-936. Siler S et al. The consumption of 24 g ethanol activates the lipogenic pathway in humans, but de novo synthesis of fatty acids represents a quantitatively minor fate (< 5%) of ingested ethanol. The primary fate (70–80%) of ethanol is conversion to acetate by the liver, release into the circulation, and oxidation by tissues. Inhibition of lipolysis and whole-body lipid oxidation are secondary consequences of the greatly increased availability of acetate. The liver, therefore, mediates the positive whole-body lipid balance induced by ethanol by providing acetate systemically, not through the direct conversion of ethanol to lipids. (Bond Briefing Nov 2013)


Inga Kadish et al. Hunger in the Absence of Caloric Restriction Improves Cognition and Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease Pathology in a Mouse Model. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (4): e60437 We determined that hunger alone, induced by a ghrelin agonist, reduces AD pathology and improves cognition in the APP-SwDI mouse model of AD. Long-term treatment with a ghrelin agonist was sufficient to improve the performance in the water maze. The treatment also reduced levels of amyloid beta (Aβ) and inflammation (microglial activation) at 6 months of age compared to the control group, similar to the effect of CR. Thus, a hunger-inducing drug attenuates AD pathology, in the absence of CR, and the neuroendocrine aspects of hunger also prevent age-related cognitive decline.  (Bond Briefing Nov 2013)


N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 21;369(21):2001-11. Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality. Bao Y et al. In two large, independent cohorts of nurses and other health professionals, the frequency of nut consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality, independently of other predictors of death.  (Bond Briefing Nov 2013)


Cephalic Phase hormone responses: Appetite. 2008; Mar-May;50(2-3):194-206. Epub 2007 Oct 24. Anticipatory physiological regulation in feeding biology: cephalic phase responses. Power ML, Schulkin J. Bond Briefing: October 2010)


Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation; Nat Genet. 2007 Oct;39(10):1256-60. Epub 2007 Sep 9.. Perry GH et al.

Starch consumption is a prominent characteristic of agricultural societies and hunter-gatherers in arid environments. In contrast, rainforest and circum-arctic hunter-gatherers and some pastoralists consume much less starch. This behavioral variation raises the possibility that different selective pressures have acted on amylase, the enzyme responsible for starch hydrolysis. We found that copy number of the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) is correlated positively with salivary amylase protein level and that individuals from populations with high-starch diets have, on average, more AMY1 copies than those with traditionally low-starch diets.  Higher AMY1 copy numbers and protein levels probably improve the digestion of starchy foods and may buffer against the fitness-reducing effects of intestinal disease. (Bond Briefing Nov 2013)


The origins of lactase persistence in Europe; PLoS Comput Biol. 2009 Aug;5(8):e1000491. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000491. Epub 2009 Aug 28. . Itan Y et al. 

Most adults worldwide do not produce the enzyme lactase and so are unable to digest the milk sugar lactose. However, most people in Europe and many from other populations continue to produce lactase throughout their life (lactase persistence). In Europe, a single genetic variant, −13,910*T, is strongly associated with lactase persistence and appears to have been favoured by natural selection in the last 10,000 years. Since adult consumption of fresh milk was only possible after the domestication of animals, it is likely that lactase persistence coevolved with the cultural practice of dairying. We infer that lactase persistence/dairying coevolution began around 7,500 years ago between the central Balkans and central Europe, probably among people of the Linearbandkeramik culture. (Bond Briefing Nov 2013)


Human social stratification and hypergyny: toward an understanding of male homosexual preference; Evolution & Human Behavior; Volume 34, Issue 3 , Pages 155-163, May 2013; Julien Barthes et al. 

Male homosexual preference (MHP) challenges evolutionary thinking because the preference for male–male relationships is heritable, implies a fertility cost (lower offspring number), and is relatively frequent in some societies (2%–6% in Western countries) for a costly trait. Because no animal species is known to display MHP in the wild, additional human-specific features must contribute to the maintenance of MHP in human populations. In a stratified society, a relatively high frequency of MHP could be maintained as a result of the social ascension of females signaling high fertility (hypergyny). The prediction that MHP is more prevalent in stratified societies was significantly supported in a sample of 48 societies for which the presence or absence of MHP has been anthropologically documented. (Bond Briefing Nov 2013)


Saturated fat is not the major issue. Malhotra A. BMJ. 2013 Oct 22;347:f6340. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f6340.

From the analysis of the independent evidence that I have done, saturated fat from non-processed food is not harmful and probably beneficial. Butter, cheese, yoghurt and eggs are generally healthy and not detrimental. The food industry has profited from the low-fat mantra for decades because foods that are marketed as low-fat are often loaded with sugar. We are now learning that added sugar in food is driving the obesity epidemic and the rise in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (Bond Briefing Oct 2013)


Understanding the placebo effect from an evolutionary perspective; Pete C. Trimmer et al; Evolution and Human Behavior 1 January 2013 (volume 34 issue 1 Pages 8-15 DOI: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.07.004). 
A placebo is a treatment which is not effective through its direct action on the body, but works because of its effect on the patient's beliefs. From an evolutionary perspective, it is initially puzzling why, if people are capable of recovering, they need a placebo to do so. Based on an argument put forward by Humphrey [Great expectations: the evolutionary psychology of faith-healing and the placebo effect], we present simple mathematical models of the placebo effect that involve a trade-off between the costs and benefits of allocating resources to a current problem. These models show why the effect occurs and how its magnitude and timing can depend on different factors. We identify a particular aspect of belief which may govern the effect and conclude that a deeper understanding of why the placebo effect exists may allow it to be invoked more easily in the future.
(Bond Briefing Oct 2013)


M. Savvas. The 2013 British Menopause Society & Women's Heath Concern recommendations on hormone replacement therapy. Menopause International: The Integrated Journal of Postreproductive Health, 2013

The decision whether to use HRT should be made by each woman having been given sufficient information by her health professional to make a fully informed choice.  The HRT dosage, regimen and duration should be individualised, with annual evaluation of pros and cons. Arbitrary limits should not be placed on the duration of usage of HRT; if symptoms persist, the benefits of hormone therapy usually outweigh the risks.   HRT prescribed before the age of 60 has a favourable benefit/risk profile.  It is imperative that women with POI are encouraged to use HRT at least until the average age of the menopause.  If HRT is to be used in women over 60 years of age, lower doses should be started, preferably with a transdermal route of administration. 
(Bond Briefing Sept 2013)


R Jones et al. Dietary Predictors of Maternal Prenatal Blood Mercury Levels in the ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2013.
Results: We estimated that maternal diet accounted for 19.8% of the total variation in ln-TBM, with 44% of diet-associated variability (8.75% of the total variation) associated with seafood consumption (white fish, oily fish, and shellfish). Other dietary components positively associated with TBM included wine and herbal teas, and components with significant negative associations included white bread, meat pies or pasties, and french fries.
Conclusions: Although seafood is a source of dietary mercury, seafood appeared to explain a relatively small proportion of the variation in TBM in our UK study population. Our findings ... suggest that limiting seafood intake during pregnancy may have a limited impact on prenatal blood mercury levels.
(Bond Briefing Sept 2013)


Li L (2003). "The biochemistry and physiology of metallic fluoride: action, mechanism, and implications". Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 14 (2): 100–14. 
Fluoride is a well-known G protein activator. Activation of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins by fluoride requires trace amounts of Al3+ or Be2+ ions. AlFx mimics a γ-phosphate at its transition state in a Gα protein and is therefore able to inhibit its GTPase activity. AlFx also forms complexes with small GTP-binding proteins in the presence of their GTPase-activating proteins (GAP). As phosphate analogs, AlFx or BeFx affect the activity of a variety of phosphoryl transfer enzymes. Most of these enzymes are fundamentally important in cell signal transduction or energy metabolism. Al3+ and F- tend to form stable complexes in aqueous solution. The exact structure and concentration of AlFx depend on the pH and the amount of F- and Al3+ in the solution. Humans are exposed to both F and Al. It is possible that Al-F complexes may be formed in vivo, or formed in vitro prior to their intake by humans. Al-F complexes may play physiological or pathological roles in bone biology, fluorosis, neurotoxicity, and oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the basic chemical, biochemical, and toxicological properties of metallic fluoride, to explore its potential physiological and clinical implications.
(Bond Briefing Sept 2013)


Rose KA et al. Myopia, lifestyle, and schooling in students of Chinese ethnicity in Singapore and Sydney. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008; 126:527–530.
Objective To compare the prevalence and risk factors for myopia in 6- and 7-year-old children of Chinese ethnicity in Sydney and Singapore.
Results The prevalence of myopia in 6- and 7-year-old children of Chinese ethnicity was significantly lower in Sydney (3.3%) than in Singapore (29.1%) (P < .001). The prevalence of myopia in 1 or more parents was 68% in Sydney and 71% in Singapore. Children in Sydney read more books per week (P < .001) and did more total near-work activity (P = .002). Children in Sydney spent more time on outdoor activities (13.75 vs 3.05 hours per week; P < .001), which was the most significant factor associated with the differences in the prevalence of myopia between the 2 sites.
Conclusions The lower prevalence of myopia in Sydney was associated with increased hours of outdoor activities. We hypothesize that another factor contributing to the differences in the prevalence of myopia may be the early educational pressures found in Singapore but not in Sydney.
(Bond Briefing August 2013)


Am J Clin Nutr July 1962 vol. 11 no. 1 31-76 . The Health and Nutritional Status of Alaskan Eskimos. George V Mann et al. The Alaskan aboriginal people have had, and continue to have, a remarkably successful adaptation to their rigorous and unique food supply. This adaptation is imperiled in the cultural transition they are now undergoing. Two dietary "riddles" appear among these people. The intake of vitamin C is often low but scurvy is not seen. This may be accounted for by a sporadic intake of a few exceptionally rich sources of vitamin C in the diet, e.g., willow leaves and cloudberries, aided by effective if unpremeditated ways of preserving these during winter. The other riddle involves vitamin A. The food sources of vitamin A are rich and plentiful, and yet the plasma levels are often low, and clinical signs suggesting past or present deficiency are seen. It is suspected but not established that vitamin A deprivation may contribute to the problem of phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis. Studies of the absorption and utilization of vitamin A in these people are needed.


J Obes. 2012;2012:258624. The carnivore connection hypothesis: revisited. Brand-Miller JC et al.
The "Carnivore Connection" hypothesizes that, during human evolution, a scarcity of dietary carbohydrate in diets with low plant : animal subsistence ratios led to insulin resistance providing a survival and reproductive advantage with selection of genes for insulin resistance. The selection pressure was relaxed at the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution when large quantities of cereals first entered human diets. The "Carnivore Connection" explains the high prevalence of intrinsic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in populations that transition rapidly from traditional diets with a low-glycemic load, to high-carbohydrate, high-glycemic index diets that characterize modern diets. Selection pressure has been relaxed longest in European populations, explaining a lower prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, despite recent exposure to famine and food scarcity. Increasing obesity and habitual consumption of high-glycemic-load diets worsens insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in all populations.


Diabetes. 1984 Jun;33(6):596-603. Marked improvement in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic Australian aborigines after temporary reversion to traditional lifestyle. O'Dea K.
Ten full-blood, diabetic Aborigines were tested before and after living for 7 wk as hunter-gatherers in their traditional country in north-western Australia. They were middle aged (53.9 +/- 1.8 yr) and overweight (81.9 +/- 3.4 kg), and all lost weight steadily over the 7-wk period (average, 8 kg). They had a low-energy intake (1200 kcal/person/day). Animal food had high contribution to the total energy intake (64%), but the diet was low in total fat (13%) due to the very low fat content of wild animals. There were marked improvements in fasting glucose and in postprandial glucose clearance. The fasting plasma insulin concentration fell and the insulin response to glucose improved. There was a marked fall in fasting plasma triglycerides and VLDL. The major metabolic abnormalities of type II diabetes were either greatly improved or completely normalized in this group of Aborigines by relatively short reversal of the urbanization process.
(Bond Briefing August 2013)


Human Responses to the Geophysical Daily, Annual and Lunar Cycles; Russell G. et al. Current Biology, Volume 18, Issue 17, 9 September 2008, Pages R784-R794.
Collectively the daily, seasonal, lunar and tidal geophysical cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of life on Earth. The increasing isolation of human societies from these geophysical cycles have led many to believe that human biology functions independently of them. Yet recent studies have highlighted the dominant role that our circadian clock plays in the organisation of 24 hour patterns of behaviour and physiology. Preferred wake and sleep times are to a large extent driven by an endogenous temporal program that uses sunlight as an entraining cue. The alarm clock can drive human activity rhythms but has little direct effect on our endogenous 24 hour physiology. In many situations, our biology and our society appear to be in serious opposition, and the damaging consequences to our health under these circumstances are increasingly recognised. The seasons dominate the lives of non-equatorial species, and until recently, they also had a marked influence on much of human biology. Despite human isolation from seasonal changes in temperature, food and photoperiod in the industrialised nations, the seasons still appear to have a small, but significant, impact upon when individuals are born and many aspects of health. The seasonal changes that modulate our biology, and how these factors might interact with the social and metabolic status of the individual to drive seasonal effects, are still poorly understood. Lunar cycles had, and continue to have, an influence upon human culture, though despite a persistent belief that our mental health and other behaviours are modulated by the phase of the moon, there is no solid evidence that human biology is in any way regulated by the lunar cycle.
(Bond Briefing August 2013)


N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 4;368(14):1279-90. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1200303. Epub 2013 Feb 25. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. Estruch R, et al. SUPPLEMENT
A total of 7447 persons were enrolled. The two Mediterranean-diet groups had good adherence to the intervention. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.70 and 0.72 for the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (96 events) and the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (83 events), respectively, versus the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons at high cardiovascular risk, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events.
(Bond Briefing August 2013)


RA Miranda et al. The Impact of Organic Farming on Quality of Tomatoes Is Associated to Increased Oxidative Stress during Fruit Development. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (2): e56354. Organic tomatoes have much higher levels of micronutrients such as phenols, lycopene and vitamin C. For years, commercial growers have been fighting a rearguard action, claiming that their produce is just as nutritious as organic. This study is powerful support to the organic movement... (Bond Briefing April 2013)


BMC Med. 2013 Mar 7;11:63. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-63. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Rohrmann S et al. Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). (Bond Briefing March 2013)


Cognitive Decline and the Default American Lifestyle. John Mirowsky. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2011 July; 66B(suppl_1): i50–i58. Upward trends in IQ, education, and mental work suggest that cognitive function among seniors should be rising strongly across cohorts. There is little sign of such improvement in recent decades, and some analyses find poorer function in the newer cohorts. This essay explores possible explanations of the anomaly. (Bond Briefing March 2013)


JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):321-33. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Rossouw JE et al . (Bond Briefing Dec 2012)


Chemical composition of baobab fruit; Nour A; Tropical Science; 1980; 22(4). (Bond Briefing Dec 2012)


Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular events in recently postmenopausal women: randomised trial; Cite this as:BMJ2012;345:e6409; Louise Lind Schierbeck et al.
After 10 years of randomised treatment, women receiving hormone replacement therapy early after menopause had a significantly reduced risk of mortality, heart failure, or myocardial infarction, without any apparent increase in risk of cancer, venous thromboembolism, or stroke. 
(Bond Briefing Dec 2012)


P'ng Loke et al. Therapeutic Helminth Infection of Macaques with Idiopathic Chronic Diarrhea Alters the Inflammatory Signature and Mucosal Microbiota of the Colon. PLoS Pathogens, 2012; 8 (11): e1003000
Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) is a leading cause of morbidity amongst rhesus monkeys kept in captivity. Here, we show that exposure of affected animals to the whipworm Trichuris trichiura led to clinical improvement in fecal consistency, accompanied by weight gain, in four out of the five treated monkeys. 
(Bond Briefing Dec 2012)


Nutr Rev. 2009 November; 67(11): 615–623. Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Public Health. Steven H. Zeisel et al. Choline was officially recognized as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1998. There is a significant variation in the dietary requirement for choline that can be explained by common genetic polymorphisms. Because of its wide-ranging roles in human metabolism, from cell structure to neurotransmitter synthesis, choline-deficiency is now thought to have an impact on diseases such as liver disease, atherosclerosis and possibly neurological disorders. Choline is found in a wide variety of foods. Egg yolks are the most concentrated source of choline in the American diet, providing 680 milligrams per 100 grams. Mean choline intakes for older children, men, women and pregnant women are far below the Adequate Intake established by the IOM. Given the importance of choline in a wide range of critical functions in the human body, coupled with less than optimal intakes among the population, dietary guidance should be developed to encourage the intake of choline-rich foods. (Bond Briefing Dec 2012)


The New Yorker. Annals of anthropology. Vengeance is ours. What can tribal societies tell us about our need to get even? by Jared Diamond April 21, 2008. In the Highlands of New Guinea, rival clans have often fought wars lasting decades, in which each killing provokes another.


The Hygiene Hypothesis and its implications for home hygiene, lifestyle and public health; R. Stanwell Smith et al; International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene, September 2012. This updated review further examines the evidence for changed microbial exposure, or the lack of it, as a cause for allergy and the chronic inflammatory diseases that have increased in recent decades. Newly important concepts such as the ‘Old Friends hypothesis’ and the related ‘Biodiversity hypothesis’ are examined: these suggest that microbial species beneficial for immune system development have become less common in the modern environment or have been replaced by other species, including invasive pathogens. (Bond Briefing Nov 2012)  


Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism; Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 207426, Effects of 16-Week Consumption of Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Instant Coffee on Glucose Metabolism in a Randomized Controlled Trial; Keizo Ohnaka et al.
We investigated the effects of chronic drinking of instant coffee on glucose and insulin concentrations during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The caffeinated coffee group showed statistically significant decreases in the 2-hour concentrations and the area under the curve of glucose while neither decaffeinated coffee nor coffee group showed such a change. Waist circumstance decreased in the caffeinated coffee group, increased in the decaffeinated coffee group, and did not change in the non-coffee group. With adjustment for the change in waist circumference, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption were associated with a modest decrease in the post-load glucose levels.
(Bond Briefing Nov 2012)


Cost/Benefit 'Sadler tables', Hospital Hastings Center Report, Jan-Feb 2011. Designing hospitals to be more in tune with human nature. (Bond Briefing Nov 2012)  


Kevin Boyd, (R)evolutionary Health Care, ICAN: Infant, Child, & Adolescent Nutrition, 2012 4: 332
Of the myriad well-known health benefits conferred on breastfed children, protection against later development of malocclusion (poorly aligned jaws and crooked teeth seems to be the least studied and understood. Most dentists, orthodontists, oral surgeons, and other allied health care professionals are seemingly unaware of the fact that now highly prevalent malocclusion and impacted wisdom teeth did not even exist appreciably in humans until shortly after the beginning of the Industrial Revolution during the early to mid-18th century.
(Bond Briefing Nov 2012)


J Clin Invest. 1985 Aug;76(2):667-75; Pathophysiology of chronic tubulo-interstitial disease in rats. Interactions of dietary acid load, ammonia, and complement component C3. Nath KA et al ...Because nitrogen nucleophiles such as ammonia react with C3 to form a convertase for the alternative complement pathway, and because increased tissue levels of ammonia are associated with increased tubulo-interstitial injury, we propose that augmented intrarenal levels of ammonia are injurious because of activation of the alternative complement pathway. Chemotactic and cytolytic complement [toxic ]components are thereby generated, leading to tubulo-interstitial inflammation. Thus, alkali supplementation reduces chronic tubulo-interstitial disease in the remnant kidney of the rat, and we propose that this results, at least in part, from reduction in cortical ammonia and its interaction with the alternative complement pathway. (Bond Briefing Nov 2012)


Coronary Heart Disease among American Soldiers Killed in Action in Korea; JAMA, July 18, 1953, vol 152, No 12, 1090; Enos WF et al. 
Way back in 1953, Major William Enos of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology created a stir by finding that some 77% of young soldiers (average age 22.5) killed in battle (Korean War) had “gross evidence of coronary arteriosclerosis”
(Bond Briefing Nov 2012)


Jin-Ho Seo et al. Whole cell biosynthesis of a functional oligosaccharide, 2' -fucosyllactose, using engineered Escherichia coli. Microbial Cell Factories, 2012; 11 (1): 48
A University of Illinois microbial engineer has synthesized a sugar in human milk that is thought to protect babies from pathogens. That's important because 2FL, the shorthand scientists use to describe this human milk oligosaccharide (HMO), has not been added to infant formula because HMOs are incredibly expensive. We know these oligosaccharides play a vital role in developing a breast-fed baby's gut microbiota and in strengthening their immunity. 2FL (2-fucosyllactose) is the most abundant HMO in breast milk," said Michael Miller, a U of I professor of food microbiology. To learn more about the HMO's function, Miller would like to do research with 2FL in newborn piglets, an excellent model for the human infant. Unfortunately, 1 milligram of 2FL costs $100, meaning a single study would require $1 million for the HMO alone, he said. (Bond Briefing Oct 2012)


Krasnow MM, et al. What Are Punishment and Reputation for? PLoS ONE, 2012; 7(9): e45662
Why did punishment and the use of reputation evolve in humans? According to one family of theories, they evolved to support the maintenance of cooperative group norms; according to another, they evolved to enhance personal gains from cooperation.
The circumstances in which punishment is deployed and withheld–its circuit logic–support the hypothesis that it is generated by psychological mechanisms that evolved to benefit the punisher, by allowing him to bargain for better treatment.
(Bond Briefing Oct 2012)


Attwood AS et al; Glass Shape Influences Consumption Rate for Alcoholic Beverages. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (8): e43007 High levels of alcohol consumption and increases in heavy episodic drinking (binge drinking) are a growing public concern, due to their association with increased risk of personal and societal harm. Alcohol consumption has been shown to be sensitive to factors such as price and availability. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of glass shape on the rate of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. (Bond Briefing Oct 2012)


Marmot MG. A prospective study of change in sleep duration; associations with mortality in the whitehall II cohort. SLEEP 2007;30(12):1659-1666. Although sleep curtailment has become widespread in industrialised societies, little work has examined the effects on mortality of change in sleep duration. We investigated associations of sleep duration and change in sleep duration with all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality. Measurements and Results  U-shaped associations were observed between sleep (≤5, 6, 7, 8, ≥9 hours) at Phase 1 and Phase 3 and subsequent all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality. A decrease in sleep duration among participants sleeping 6, 7, or 8 hours at baseline was associated with cardiovascular mortality, hazard ratio 2.4 (95% confidence intervals 1.4–4.1). However, an increase in sleep duration among those sleeping 7 or 8 hours at baseline was associated with non-cardiovascular mortality, hazard ratio 2.1 (1.4–3.1). Adjustment for the socio-demographic factors, existing morbidity, and health-related behaviours measured left these associations largely unchanged. Conclusions. This is the first study to show that both a decrease in sleep duration and an increase in sleep duration are associated with an increase in mortality via effects on cardiovascular death and non-cardiovascular death respectively. (Bond Briefing Sept 2012)


G. Camps. What would Batman eat?: priming children to make healthier fast food choices. Pediatric Obesity, 2012; 7 (2): 121
Fast food patronage is a frequent reality for many children and their parents. Although there are increasingly healthier alternatives for popular menu items (apple slices instead of French fries), they are infrequently selected. Objectives: We investigated whether either of two priming tactics – the priming of a role model's food choices or the priming of healthy foods – could influence children to make healthier fast food choices. Methods: In the priming model condition, 22 children (ranging in age from 6 to 12 years) were presented with 12 photos of 6 admirable and 6 less admirable models and asked, ‘Would this person order apple fries or French fries?’ In the health prime condition, the same children were shown 12 photos of 6 healthy foods and 6 less healthy foods and asked to indicate if each food was healthy or unhealthy. Results: When children were asked what various admirable people – such as Batman or Spiderman – would eat, 45% chose apple slices over French fries, which was higher than the health prime (P < 0.001) or the control condition (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Advising a parent to ask their child ‘What would Batman (or another admired character or person) eat?’ might be an easy step to take in what could be a healthier fast food world.
(Bond Briefing Sept 2012)


Herman Pontzer, Frank W. Marlowe et al. Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (7): e40503
Western lifestyles differ markedly from those of our hunter-gatherer ancestors, and these differences in diet and activity level are often implicated in the global obesity pandemic. However, few physiological data for hunter-gatherer populations are available to test these models of obesity. In this study, we used the doubly-labeled water method to measure total daily energy expenditure (kCal/day) in Hadza hunter-gatherers to test whether foragers expend more energy each day than their Western counterparts. As expected, physical activity level, PAL, was greater among Hadza foragers than among Westerners. Nonetheless, average daily energy expenditure of traditional Hadza foragers was no different than that of Westerners after controlling for body size. The metabolic cost of walking (kcal kg−1 m−1) and resting (kcal kg−1 s−1) were also similar among Hadza and Western groups. The similarity in metabolic rates across a broad range of cultures challenges current models of obesity suggesting that Western lifestyles lead to decreased energy expenditure. We hypothesize that human daily energy expenditure may be an evolved physiological trait largely independent of cultural differences.
(Bond Briefing Sept 2012)


Priming of Natural Killer Cells by Nonmucosal Mononuclear Phagocytes Requires Instructive Signals from Commensal Microbiota; Immunity, Volume 37, Issue 1, 171-186, 28 June 2012; Stephanie C. Ganal;  Mononuclear phagocytes are an important component of an innate immune system perceived as a system ready to react upon encounter of pathogens. Here, we show that in response to microbial stimulation, mononuclear phagocytes residing in nonmucosal lymphoid organs of germ-free mice failed to induce expression of a set of inflammatory response genes, including those encoding the various type I interferons (IFN-I). Consequently, NK cell priming and antiviral immunity were severely compromised. Whereas pattern recognition receptor signaling and nuclear translocation of the transcription factors NF-κB and IRF3 were normal in mononuclear phagocytes of germ-free mice, binding to their respective cytokine promoters was impaired, which correlated with the absence of activating histone marks. Our data reveal a previously unrecognized role for postnatally colonizing microbiota in the introduction of chromatin level changes in the mononuclear phagocyte system, thereby poising expression of central inflammatory genes to initiate a powerful systemic immune response during viral infection. (Bond Briefing Aug 2012)


Michael Stern. Insulin Signaling and Autism. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 2011. (Bond Briefing Aug 2012)


Type 1 Diabetes: Etiology, Immunology, and Therapeutic Strategies; Tom L. Van Belle et al; Physiol Rev January 1, 2011 vol. 91 no. 1 79-118. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which destruction or damaging of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans results in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We only know for sure that autoimmunity is the predominant effector mechanism of T1D, but may not be its primary cause. T1D precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals, very likely as a result of an environmental trigger. Current genetic data point towards the following genes as susceptibility genes: HLA, insulin, PTPN22, IL2Ra, and CTLA4. Epidemiological and other studies suggest a triggering role for enteroviruses, while other microorganisms might provide protection. Efficacious prevention of T1D will require detection of the earliest events in the process. So far, autoantibodies are most widely used as serum biomarker, but T-cell readouts and metabolome studies might strengthen and bring forward diagnosis. Current preventive clinical trials mostly focus on environmental triggers. Therapeutic trials test the efficacy of antigen-specific and antigen-nonspecific immune interventions, but also include restoration of the affected beta-cell mass by islet transplantation, neogenesis and regeneration, and combinations thereof. In this comprehensive review, we explain the genetic, environmental, and immunological data underlying the prevention and intervention strategies to constrain T1D.  (Bond Briefing Aug 2012)


J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 3;278(1):54-63. A type 1 diabetes-related protein from wheat (Triticum aestivum). cDNA clone of a wheat storage globulin, Glb1, linked to islet damage. MacFarlane et al. The development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes involves complex interactions among several genes and environmental agents. Human patients with type 1 diabetes show an unusually high frequency of wheat gluten-sensitive enteropathy; T-cell response to wheat proteins is increased in some patients, and high concentrations of wheat antibodies in blood have been reported. In both major models of spontaneous type 1 diabetes, the BioBreeding (BB) rat and non-obese diabetic mouse, at least half of the cases are diet-related. In studies of BB rats fed defined semipurified diets, wheat gluten was the most potent diabetes-inducing protein source. A major limitation in understanding how wheat or other dietary antigens affect type 1 diabetes has been the difficulty in identifying specific diabetes-related dietary proteins. To address this issue, we probed a wheat cDNA expression library with polyclonal IgG antibodies from diabetic BB rats. Three clones were identified, and the intensity of antibody binding to one of them, WP5212, was strongly associated with pancreatic islet inflammation and damage. The WP5212 putative protein has high amino acid sequence homology with a wheat storage globulin, Glb1. Serum IgG antibodies from diabetic rats and humans recognized low molecular mass (33-46 kDa) wheat proteins. Furthermore, antibodies to Glb1 protein were found in serum from diabetic patients but not in age-, sex-, and HLA-DQ-matched controls. This study raises the possibility that in some individuals, type 1 diabetes may be induced by wheat proteins. Also, it provides a first candidate wheat protein that is not only antigenic in diabetic rats and human patients but is also closely linked with the autoimmune attack in the pancreas. (Bond Briefing Aug 2012)


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 29;108(13):5209-14. On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Roebroeks W et al.
The timing of the human control of fire is a hotly debated issue, with claims for regular fire use by early hominins in Africa at ∼ 1.6 million y ago. These claims are not uncontested, but most archaeologists would agree that the colonization of areas outside Africa, especially of regions such as Europe where temperatures at time dropped below freezing, was indeed tied to the use of fire. Our review of the European evidence suggests that early hominins moved into northern latitudes without the habitual use of fire. It was only much later, from ∼ 300,000 to 400,000 y ago onward, that fire became a significant part of the hominin technological repertoire. It is also from the second half of the Middle Pleistocene onward that we can observe spectacular cases of Neandertal pyrotechnological knowledge in the production of hafting materials. The increase in the number of sites with good evidence of fire throughout the Late Pleistocene shows that European Neandertals had fire management not unlike that documented for Upper Paleolithic groups. (Bond Briefing Aug 2012)


J Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1431S-3S. Inulin, oligofructose and intestinal function. Jenkins DJ et al; Inulin and oligofructose have attracted much attention recently as nonabsorbable carbohydrates with prebiotic properties. When inulin and oligofructose were added to a controlled diet, significant increases were noted in colonic bifidobacterial populations, and it has been proposed that these changes promote both colonic and systemic health through modification of the intestinal microflora. Inulin and oligofructose are rapidly and completely fermented by the colonic microflora with the production of acetate and other short-chain fatty acids. As with lactulose, they may also result in the growth of the fecal biomass, and in doing so, entrap ammonia for bacterial protein synthesis or conversion to the ammonium ion. As with dietary fiber and other nonabsorbable carbohydrates, there is also interest in inulin and oligofructose from the standpoint of inhibition of colonic carcinogenesis, blood cholesterol reduction, immune stimulation and enhanced vitamin synthesis. In these areas, the influence of their molecular weight is also an issue, with the longer chain length providing a more sustained fermentation pattern. More human studies are now required, including studies on the long-term effects of inulin and oligofructose consumption on colonic health, in particular on markers of cancer risk such as reduction in colonic polyp recurrence.


Consensus Vitamin D position statement. This consensus statement represents the unified views of the British Association of Dermatologists, Cancer Research UK, Diabetes UK, the Multiple Sclerosis Society, the National Heart Forum, the National Osteoporosis Society and the Primary Care Dermatology Society. Vitamin D is essential for good bone health and for most people sunlight is the most important source of vitamin D. The time required to make sufficient vitamin D varies according to a number of environmental, physical and personal factors, but is typically short and less than the amount of time needed for skin to redden and burn. Enjoying the sun safely, while taking care not to burn, can help to provide the benefits of vitamin D without unduly raising the risk of skin cancer. Vitamin D supplements and specific foods can help to maintain sufficient levels of vitamin D, particularly in people at risk of deficiency. However, there is still a lot of uncertainty around what levels qualify as “optimal” or “sufficient”, how much sunlight different people need to achieve a given level of vitamin D, whether vitamin D protects against chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes, and the benefits and risks of widespread supplementation.


Eur J Pediatr. 2012 Sep;171(9):1349-58. Death, nasomaxillary complex, and sleep in young children. Rambaud C et al. This is an investigation of anatomical and sleep history risk factors that were associated with abrupt sleep-associated death in seven children with good pre-mortem history. Seven young children with abrupt deaths and information on health status, sleep history, death scene report, and autopsy performed in a specialized unit dedicated to investigation of abrupt death in young children were investigated Seven age and gender matched living children with obstructive-sleep-apnea (OSA) were compared to the findings obtained from the dead children. Two deaths results from accidents determined by the death scene and five were unexplained at the death scene. History revealed presence of chronic indicators of abnormal sleep in all cases prior death and history of an acute, often mild, rhinitis just preceding death in several. Four children, including three infants, were usually sleeping in a prone position. Autopsy demonstrated variable enlargement of upper airway soft tissues in all cases, and in all cases, there were features consistent with a narrow, small nasomaxillary complex, with or without mandibular retroposition. All children were concluded to have died of hypoxia during sleep. Our OSA children presented similar complaints and similar facial features. Anatomic risk factors for a narrow upper airway can be determined early in life, and these traits are often familial. Their presence should lead to greater attention to sleep-related complaints that may be present very early in life and indicate impairment of well been and presence of sleep disruption. Further investigation should be performed to understand the role of upper airway infection in the setting of anatomically small airway in apparently abrupt death of infants and toddlers.


Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1308-16. Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors. Sebastian A et al.
BACKGROUND: Natural selection has had < 1% of hominid evolutionary time to eliminate the inevitable maladaptations consequent to the profound transformation of the human diet resulting from the inventions of agriculture and animal husbandry.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to estimate the net systemic load of acid (net endogenous acid production; NEAP) from retrojected ancestral preagricultural diets and to compare it with that of contemporary diets, which are characterized by an imbalance of nutrient precursors of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions that induces a lifelong, low-grade, pathogenically significant systemic metabolic acidosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that diet-induced metabolic acidosis and its sequelae in humans eating contemporary diets reflect a mismatch between the nutrient composition of the diet and genetically determined nutritional requirements for optimal systemic acid-base status. (Bond Briefing Nov 2012)


Epidemiol Rev. 2001;23(1):72-81. Fat, meat, and prostate cancer. Kolonel LN.
For more than 25 years, epidemiologic studies have reported on the relation of dietary fat to the risk of prostate cancer. Indeed, fat per se, or food sources of fat, has probably been the most studied of all dietary factors with regard to this cancer site. Despite this extensive investigative effort, the role of dietary fat in prostate cancer remains unclear. 


Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Nov;97(1):101-6. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.


Nutr Rev. 2012 Jul;70(7):387-96. Effect of whole grains on markers of subclinical inflammation. Lefevre M, Jonnalagadda S.
The reduction of subclinical inflammation has been suggested as a potential mechanism to explain the favorable association between whole-grain consumption and reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. This review examines evidence for the effects of whole-grain consumption on markers of subclinical inflammation derived from 13 epidemiological and 5 interventional studies retrieved from a search of the PubMed database. Epidemiological studies provide reasonable support for an association between diets high in whole grains and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. After adjusting for other dietary factors, each serving of whole grains is estimated to reduce CRP concentrations by approximately 7%. In contrast to epidemiological studies, interventional studies do not demonstrate a clear effect of increased whole-grain consumption on CRP or other markers of inflammation. Issues related to insufficient length of intervention, extent of dietary control, population selection, types of whole grains, and lack of a direct anti-inflammatory effect may underlie these discrepant findings. Additional carefully controlled interventional studies are needed to clarify the effects of whole grains on subclinical inflammation.


Annu Rev Nutr. 2009;29:365-79. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and low-carbohydrate diets. York LW, Puthalapattu S, Wu GY.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and other features of metabolic syndrome and is known to be the most common cause for abnormal liver enzymes. The recent surge in the number of patients with NAFLD has been accompanied by an increase in research on potential treatment options, particularly weight loss and dietary interventions. Given the growing interest on the role of carbohydrates in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD, this review discusses the relationship between the amount of carbohydrates in the diet and effects on NAFLD, with special emphasis on a low-carbohydrate diet. We discuss the role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of NAFLD and provide an overview of various popular diets and their role as a treatment option for NAFLD. Additional large, longer-duration trials studying the efficacy of a low-carbohydrate diet in the treatment and prevention of NAFLD are eagerly awaited.


J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2012 Jun;5(3):256-63. Epub 2012 Mar 31. Loss of compliance in small arteries, but not in conduit arteries, after 6 weeks exposure to high fat diet. Billaud M et al. 
Arterial stiffness is a key marker in metabolic diseases and can be evaluated by arterial compliance. Most compliance measurements are performed in large conduit arteries in advanced stage of metabolic diseases, which may not provide information on mechanisms associated with the initiation of the pathology. For this reason, we compared arterial compliance of two different size arteries: carotid and a smaller artery (thoracodorsal artery, TDA). The arterial compliance was compared between control and high fat-fed mice for 6 weeks.We show that the compliance of the TDAs was dramatically reduced in high fat-fed mice whereas the compliance of the carotids remained unchanged. An abundance of collagen deposition in the media/adventitia of the carotids and TDAs was observed in high fat-fed mice. These results demonstrate that the structural and mechanical properties of small arteries are rapidly altered even after only 6 weeks of high fat feeding. 


Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Mar;66(3):689-92. Luteolin, a flavone, does not suppress postprandial glucose absorption through an inhibition of alpha-glucosidase action. Matsui T et al. 
In order to clarify the postprandial glucose suppression via alpha-glucosidase (AGH) inhibitory action by natural compounds, flavonoids were examined in this study. Among the flavonoids (luteolin, kaempferol, chrysin, and galangin), luteolin showed the potent maltase inhibitory activity with the IC50 of 2.3 mM, while less inhibitions were observed against sucrase. In addition, the effects of maltase inhibition by flavonoids were observed in the descending order of potency of luteolin > kaempferol > chrysin > galangin. Apparently, the AGH inhibition power greatly increased with the replacement of hydroxyl groups at 3' and 4'-position of the B-ring. However, the inhibitory power of luteolin was poorer than a therapeutic drug (acarbose: IC50; 430 nM). As a result of a single oral administration of maltose or sucrose (2 g/kg) in SD rats, no significant change in blood glucose level with the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of luteolin was observed. These findings strongly suggested that luteolin given at less than 200 mg/kg did not possess the ability to suppress the glucose production from carbohydrates through the inhibition of AGH action in the gut.


 E. A. Hu, et al; White rice consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. BMJ, 2012; 344 (mar15 3): e1454
Asian (Chinese and Japanese) populations had much higher white rice consumption levels than did Western populations (average intake levels were three to four servings/day versus one to two servings/week). The pooled relative risk was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 2.01) comparing the highest with the lowest category of white rice intake in Asian populations, whereas the corresponding relative risk was 1.12 (0.94 to 1.33) in Western populations (P for interaction=0.038). In the total population, the dose-response meta-analysis indicated that for each serving per day increment of white rice intake, the relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.11 (1.08 to 1.14) (P for linear trend<0.001).Conclusion Higher consumption of white rice is associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes, especially in Asian (Chinese and Japanese) populations. (Bond Briefing May 2012)


‘Toxic’ effects of sugar: should we be afraid of fructose?; BMC Biology 2012, 10:42; Luc Tappy
Fructose has recently been the focus of much interest as a possible contributor to the current epidemic of metabolic diseases. What is fructose, and why is it implicated in metabolic disease?


Impact of Carnivory on Human Development and Evolution Revealed by a New Unifying Model of Weaning in Mammals; PLoS ONE; 1 April 2012; Volume 7; Issue 4; Elia Psouni et al.
Our large brain, long life span and high fertility are key elements of human evolutionary success and are often thought to have evolved in interplay with tool use, carnivory and hunting. However, the specific impact of carnivory on human evolution, life history and development remains controversial. Here we show in quantitative terms that dietary profile is a key factor influencing time to weaning across a wide taxonomic range of mammals, including humans. In a model encompassing a total of 67 species and genera from 12 mammalian orders, adult brain mass and two dichotomous variables reflecting species differences regarding limb biomechanics and dietary profile, accounted for 75.5%, 10.3% and 3.4% of variance in time to weaning, respectively, together capturing 89.2% of total variance. Crucially, carnivory predicted the time point of early weaning in humans with remarkable precision, yielding a prediction error of less than 5% with a sample of forty-six human natural fertility societies as reference. Hence, carnivory appears to provide both a necessary and sufficient explanation as to why humans wean so much earlier than the great apes. While early weaning is regarded as essentially differentiating the genus Homo from the great apes, its timing seems to be determined by the same limited set of factors in humans as in mammals in general, despite some 90 million years of evolution. Our analysis emphasizes the high degree of similarity of relative time scales in mammalian development and life history across 67 genera from 12 mammalian orders and shows that the impact of carnivory on time to weaning in humans is quantifiable, and critical. Since early weaning yields shorter interbirth intervals and higher rates of reproduction, with profound effects on population dynamics, our findings highlight the emergence of carnivory as a process fundamentally determining human evolution.


Evolution: Medicine’s most basic science. Nesse, R. M., & Dawkins, R. (2010). In D. A. Warrell, T. M. Cox, J. D. Firth & E. J. J. Benz (Eds.), Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 5th edition (pp. 12-15). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Traditional medical research has been restricted to proximate studies of the body’s mechanism. However, separate evolutionary explanations are also needed for why natural selection has left many aspects of the body vulnerable to disease. There are six main possibilities: mismatch, infection, constraints, trade-offs, reproduction at the cost of health, and adaptive defences. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology has limited direct clinical implications, but it provides essential research methods, it encourages asking new questions that foster a deeper understanding of disease, and it provides a framework that organizes the facts of medicine. Physicians who understand evolution recognize that bodies are not designed machines, but jury-rigged products of millions of years of natural selection that work remarkably well, given that no trait can be perfect, and that selection maximizes reproduction, not health.


Periodontal Disease and Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: Does the Evidence Support an Independent Association? A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association;  Circulation. 2012;125:2520-2544.
A link between oral health and cardiovascular disease has been proposed for more than a century. Recently, concern about possible links between periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) has intensified and is driving an active field of investigation into possible association and causality. The 2 disorders share several common risk factors, including cigarette smoking, age, and diabetes mellitus. Patients and providers are increasingly presented with claims that PD treatment strategies offer ASVD protection; these claims are often endorsed by professional and industrial stakeholders. The focus of this review is to assess whether available data support an independent association between ASVD and PD and whether PD treatment might modify ASVD risks or outcomes. It also presents mechanistic details of both PD and ASVD relevant to this topic. The correlation of PD with ASVD outcomes and surrogate markers is discussed, as well as the correlation of response to PD therapy with ASVD event rates. Methodological issues that complicate studies of this association are outlined, with an emphasis on the terms and metrics that would be applicable in future studies. Observational studies to date support an association between PD and ASVD independent of known confounders. They do not, however, support a causative relationship. Although periodontal interventions result in a reduction in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in short-term studies, there is no evidence that they prevent ASVD or modify its outcomes. (Bond Briefing May 2012)


Parasite prevalence and the worldwide distribution of cognitive ability. Eppig C et al; Proc Biol Sci. 2010 Dec 22;277(1701):3801-8.
In this study, we hypothesize that the worldwide distribution of cognitive ability is determined in part by variation in the intensity of infectious diseases. From an energetics standpoint, a developing human will have difficulty building a brain and fighting off infectious diseases at the same time, as both are very metabolically costly tasks. Using three measures of average national intelligence quotient (IQ), we found that the zero-order correlation between average IQ and parasite stress ranges from r=-0.76 to r=-0.82 (p<0.0001). These correlations are robust worldwide, as well as within five of six world regions. Infectious disease remains the most powerful predictor of average national IQ when temperature, distance from Africa, gross domestic product per capita and several measures of education are controlled for. These findings suggest that the Flynn effect may be caused in part by the decrease in the intensity of infectious diseases as nations develop.
(Bond Briefing May 2012). Link to: IQ Rankings by Country


Strong reproductive isolation between humans and Neanderthals inferred from observed patterns of introgression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 13;108(37):15129-34. Currat M, Excoffier L. Recent studies have revealed that 2-3% of the genome of non-Africans might come from Neanderthals, suggesting a more complex scenario of modern human evolution than previously anticipated. In this paper, we use a model of admixture during a spatial expansion to study the hybridization of Neanderthals with modern humans during their spread out of Africa. We find that observed low levels of Neanderthal ancestry in Eurasians are compatible with a very low rate of interbreeding (<2%), potentially attributable to a very strong avoidance of interspecific matings, a low fitness of hybrids, or both. These results suggesting the presence of very effective barriers to gene flow between the two species are robust to uncertainties about the exact demography of the Paleolithic populations, and they are also found to be compatible with the observed lack of mtDNA introgression. Our model additionally suggests that similarly low levels of introgression in Europe and Asia may result from distinct admixture events having occurred beyond the Middle East, after the split of Europeans and Asians. This hypothesis could be tested because it predicts that different components of Neanderthal ancestry should be present in Europeans and in Asians. (Bond Briefing April 2012)


The Neuropharmacology of the Ketogenic Diet; Pediatr Neurol. 2007 May; 36(5): 281–292. Adam L. Hartman et al. The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapeutic approach for epilepsy, one in which most clinical experience has been with children. Although the mechanism by which the diet protects against seizures is unknown, there is evidence that it causes effects on intermediary metabolism that influence the dynamics of the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems in brain. The pattern of protection of the ketogenic diet in animal models of seizures is distinct from that of other anticonvulsants, suggesting that it has a unique mechanism of action. During consumption of the ketogenic diet, marked alterations in brain energy metabolism occur, with ketone bodies partly replacing glucose as fuel. Whether these metabolic changes contribute to acute seizure protection is unclear; however, the ketone body acetone has anticonvulsant activity and could play a role in the seizure protection afforded by the diet. In addition to acute seizure protection, the ketogenic diet provides protection against the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures in models of chronic epilepsy, and it has neuroprotective properties in diverse models of neurodegenerative disease. (Bond Briefing April 2012)


Transgenerational Actions of Environmental Compounds on Reproductive Disease and Identification of Epigenetic Biomarkers of Ancestral Exposures. Skinner MK et al (2012) PLoS ONE 7(2): e31901. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031901. Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm) that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease. Various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET), a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates), dioxin (TCDD) and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8). The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally. Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males. (Bond Briefing April 2012)


M. B. D’hooghe, P. Haentjens, G. Nagels, J. De Keyser. Alcohol, coffee, fish, smoking and disease progression in multiple sclerosis. European Journal of Neurology, 2012; 19 (4): 616. 
Patients with relapsing onset Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who consumed alcohol, wine, coffee and fish on a regular basis took four to seven years longer to reach the point where they needed a walking aid than people who never consumed them. The same patterns were not observed in patients with progressive onset MS. (Bond Briefing: April 2012)


The Lancet, Volume 372, Issue 9656, Pages 2124 - 2131, 20 December 2008; Inequalities in healthy life years in the 25 countries of the European Union in 2005: a cross-national meta-regression analysis; Prof Carol Jagger. 
In 2005, an average 50-year-old man in the 25 EU countries could expect to live until 67·3 years free of activity limitation, and a woman to 68·1 years. HLYs at 50 years for both men and women varied more between countries than did life expectancy (HLY range for men: from 9·1 years in Estonia to 23·6 years in Denmark; for women: from 10·4 years in Estonia to 24·1 years in Denmark). Gross domestic product and expenditure on elderly care were both positively associated with HLYs at 50 years in men and women (p<0·039 for both indicators and sexes); however, in men alone, long-term unemployment was negatively associated (p=0·023) and life-long learning positively associated (p=0·021) with HLYs at 50 years of age. (Bond Briefing: March 2012).


 E. M. Crimmins, et al. Mortality and Morbidity Trends: Is There Compression of Morbidity? The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 2010; 66B (1): 75.
Mortality declines have slowed down in the United States in recent years, especially for women. The prevalence of disease has increased. Age-specific prevalence of a number of risk factors representing physiological status has stayed relatively constant; where risks decline, increased usage of effective drugs is responsible. Mobility functioning has deteriorated. Length of life with disease and mobility functioning loss has increased between 1998 and 2008. (Bond Briefing: March 2012).


Marco Del Giudice et al; The Distance Between Mars and Venus: Measuring Global Sex Differences in Personality. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (1): e29265. 
Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. However, research in this area has suffered from significant methodological limitations. Personality measures were obtained from a large US sample (N = 10,261). Multigroup latent variable modeling was used to estimate sex differences on individual personality dimensions, which were then aggregated to yield a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis D). We found a global effect size D = 2.71, corresponding to an overlap of only 10% between the male and female distributions. These are extremely large differences by psychological standards. The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology.  (Bond Briefing: March 2012)


The health and wealth of US counties: how the small business environment impacts alternative measures of development. T. C. Blanchard; Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 2011. 
In this paper, we evaluate the prospects of small business-driven job creation by assessing the link between small business and population health, an alternative measure of economic development.... We argue that entrepreneurial culture facilitates collective efficacy for a community and provides a problem-solving capacity for addressing local public health problems. Our analysis demonstrates that communities with a greater concentration of small businesses, ceteris paribus, have greater levels of population health. Implications for theory and research are discussed.  (Bond Briefing: March 2012).


Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012 Mar 5;367(1589):670-9. McDonald MM, Navarrete CD, Van Vugt M.
The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism-the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by 'warrior males' in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional aggression could have affected the social psychologies of men and women differently and present preliminary evidence from experimental social psychological studies testing various predictions from the 'male warrior' hypothesis. (Bond Briefing: March 2012).


Overview of Evolutionary Aspects of Omega-3 Fatty acids in the Diet; Simopoulos A; World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 1998.       (Bond Briefing: February 2012)


Egg Yolk as a source of long-chain poly­unsaturated fatty acids in infant feeding; Simopoulos A; Am J Clin. Nutr. 1992; 55: 411-4. In this paper we compare the fatty acid content of egg yolks from hens fed four different feeds as a source of docosahexaenoic acid to supplement infant formula. Greek eggs contain more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 omega 3) and less linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 omega 6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3 omega 3) than do fish-meal or flax eggs. Two to three grams of Greek egg yolk may provide an adequate amount of DHA and arachidonic acid for a preterm neonate. Mean intake of breast milk at age 1 mo provides 250 mg long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. This amount can be obtained from less than 1 yolk of a Greek egg (0.94), greater than 1 yolk of flax eggs (1.6) and fish-meal eggs (1.4), or 8.3 yolks of supermarket eggs. With proper manipulation of the hens' diets, eggs could be produced with fatty acid composition similar to that of Greek eggs. (Bond Briefing: February 2012)


The Shaping of New Testament Narrative and Salvation Teachings by Painful Childhood Experience; Benjamin J. Abelow; Archive for the Psychology of Religion 33 (2011) 1-54. The influence of childhood corporal punishment, abandonment, and neglect on the development and reception of seminal New Testament teachings. Widespread patterns of painful childhood experience provided a thematic template that shaped the New Testament during its formative period. This thematic shaping has contributed to the spread and persistence of Christianity. (Bond Briefing Nov 2011


The North Atlantic ice-edge corridor: a possible Palaeolithic route to the New World. Bruce Bradley and Dennis Stanford. World Archaeology 2004 Vol. 36(4): 459 – 478. The early peopling of the New World has been a topic of intense research since the early twentieth century. We contend that the exclusive focus of research on a Beringian entry point has not been productive. Evidence has accumulated over the past two decades indicating that the earliest origin of people in North America may have been from south-western Europe during the last glacial maximum. In this summary we outline a theory of a Solutrean origin for Clovis culture and briefly present the archaeological data supporting this assertion. (Bond Briefing: September 2011)


Origins and evolution of the Western Diet - Cordain, Boyd Eaton. Cordain et al, Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:341–54.
Food staples and food-processing procedures introduced during the Neolithic and Industrial Periods have fundamentally altered 7 crucial nutritional characteristics of ancestral hominin diets: 1) glycemic load, 2) fatty acid composition, 3) macronutrient composition, 4) micronutrient density, 5) acid-base balance, 6) sodium-potassium ratio, and 7) fiber content. The evolutionary collision of our ancient genome with the nutritional qualities of recently introduced foods may underlie many of the chronic diseases of Western civilization... (Bond Briefing March 2012)


Humans Detect Health through 'Healthy' Complexion. (Bond Briefing: March 2011) Eating a healthy diet rich in fruit and vegetables gives you a more healthy golden glow even than the sun. The research, which showed that the best way to look good is to munch on carrots and tomatoes. Ref: Carotenoid and melanin pigment coloration affect perceived human health; Ian D. Stephen et al; Evolution & Human Behavior - May 2011 (Vol. 32, Issue 3, Pages 216-227,


The two faces of serotonin in bone biology. The serotonin molecule has some remarkable properties. It is synthesized by two different genes at two different sites, and, surprisingly, plays antagonistic functions on bone mass accrual at these two sites. When produced peripherally, serotonin acts as a hormone to inhibit bone formation. In contrast, when produced in the brain, serotonin acts as a neurotransmitter to exert a positive and dominant effect on bone mass accrual by enhancing bone formation and limiting bone resorption. J Cell Biol. 2010 Oct 4;191(1):7-13. The two faces of serotonin in bone biology. Ducy P et al


Milk and calcium don't help bone health. An adequate vitamin D intake is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in postmenopausal women. Neither milk nor a high-calcium diet appears to reduce risk. Because women commonly consume less than the recommended intake of vitamin D, supplement use or dark fish consumption may be prudent. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:504–11. Feskanich et al.






Paleolithic Nutrition - Twenty-Five Years Later; Melvin Konner & S. Boyd Eaton (Nutr Clin Pract. 2010;25:594-602. A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model. (Bond Briefing: Sept 2012)


Stone-agers -fast-lane.pdf


San Health-truswell.pdf










Aborigine Health Returns when Return to Traditional lifestyle. Diabetes. 1984 Jun;33(6):596-603. Marked improvement in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic Australian aborigines after temporary reversion to traditional lifestyle. O'Dea K. Abstract. The rationale for the present study was that temporarily reversing the urbanization process in diabetic Aborigines should improve all aspects of their carbohydrate and lipid metabolism that are linked to insulin resistance. Ten full-blood, diabetic Aborigines from the Mowanjum Community (Derby, Western Australia) agreed to be tested before and after living for 7 wk as hunter-gatherers in their traditional country in north-western Australia. They were middle aged (53.9 +/- 1.8 yr) and overweight (81.9 +/- 3.4 kg), and all lost weight steadily over the 7-wk period (average, 8 kg). A detailed analysis of food intake over 2 wk revealed a low-energy intake (1200 kcal/person/day). Despite the high contribution of animal food to the total energy intake (64%), the diet was low in total fat (13%) due to the very low fat content of wild animals. Oral glucose tolerance tests (75 g glucose) were conducted in the urban setting and repeated at the end of 7 wk of traditional lifestyle. The marked improvement in glucose was due to both a fall in fasting glucose (11.6 +/- 1.2 mM before, 6.6 +/- 0.8 mM after) and an improvement in postprandial glucose clearance (incremental area under the glucose curve: 15.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/L/h before, 11.7 +/- 1.2 mmol/L/h after). Fasting plasma insulin concentration fell (23 +/- 2 mU/L before, 12 +/- 1 mU/L after) and the insulin response to glucose improved (incremental area under the insulin curve: 61 +/- 18 mU/L/h before, 104 +/- 21 mU/L/h after).


8 Glasses a day Myth. We have always been puzzled by the modern mantra to drink all that water. In our Natural Eating precepts we point out that our Pleistocene ancestors could achieve water balance without drinking any water at all. Not surprising really; not much fun competing with lions, crocodiles and hyenas for a sip from a muddy, excrement-infested waterhole.  On the contrary, a high plant-food diet should provide all the liquid you need. Now Heinz Valtin, MD. says that the universal advice, which has made swigging water a national pastime, lacks scientific proof and is more urban myth than medical insight. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002 Nov;283(5):R993-1004. "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 x 8"? Valtin H. Bond Briefing: September 2002.


USDA Dietary Guidelines 2010 (Not recommended!) Bond Briefing: February 2011


Sunshine Consensus Statement. In an about turn, a consensus of health experts urges people to spend up to 15 mins in the midday sun without sun­screen three times a week to boost levels of vitamin D; December 9, 2010. Bond Briefing: January 2011


Evolution - Ascent of Man. Emma Bayley, Focus, September 2000. Three million six hundred thousand years ago, in the African Savanna north of Johannesburg, a hominid was searching for food to sustain its mainly vegetarian diet...


Achieving Hunter-gatherer Fitness in the 21st Century. O'Keefe  American Journal of Medicine (2010) 123, 1082-1086. The systematic displacement from a very physically active lifestyle in our natural outdoor environment to a sedentary, indoor lifestyle is at the root of many of the ubiquitous chronic diseases that are endemic in our culture. The intuitive solution is to simulate the indigenous human activity pattern to the extent that this is possible and practically achievable. Suggestions for exercise mode, duration, intensity, and frequency are outlined with a focus on realigning our daily physical activities with the archetype that is encoded within our genome.  Bond Briefing: January 2011


Cooking up a storm. Brian Ridley  The concept of consensus in science seems innocuous, but it conjures up dangerous possibilities... A Law of Nature is not decided by a referendum, nor even by a committee of the Great and the Good. Scientific knowledge is gained by the insight and talent of the individual scientist and discussion with his peers. In this sense, the idea of consensus in science is an oxymoron... Prof Brian Ridley, Salisbury Review, Autumn 2010.


Back from chaos. Edward O Wilson: Enlightenment thinkers knew a lot about everything, today's specialists know a lot about a little, and postmodernists doubt that we can know anything at all. One of the century's most important scientists argues, against fashion, that we can know what we need to know, and that we will discover underlying all forms of knowledge a fundamental unity. Edward O Wilson, Atlantic Monthly, March 1998.


Dietary Guidelines in the 21st Century - a time for food - Mozaffarian - JAMA 2010; 304; no 6; 681-682. “The nutrient-based approach may foster dietary practices that defy common sense.” So speaks out Dr Mozaffarian of Harvard Medical School. In an insightful article in JAMA (the American doctors’ journal) he looks at the link between diet and chronic disease. Dr Mozaffarian observes that USDA Dietary Guidelines are an outgrowth of the ‘magic bullet’ mentality where the emphasis is on specifying an ever-widen¬ing range of nutrients. However the prob¬lem today is not one of nutrient deficiency but, rather, the intake of the wrong foods. Bond Briefing: August 2010.


Salicylic Acid in Vegetarians: J Clin Pathol. 2001 July; 54(7): 553–555. doi: 10.1136/jcp.54.7.553. PMCID: PMC1731460; Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin. Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin. C Blacklock et al. Bond Briefing: December 2010


Milk Drinking gives Brittle Bones. Milk, Dietary Calcium, and Bone Fractures  Feskanich D; Am J Public Health; 1997; 87; 992-997. Natural Eating: page 27 of Chapter Eight, Osteoporosis, (page 146 in book)


Mozambican grass seed consumption during the Middle Stone Age. Science. 2009 Dec 18;326(5960):1680-3. Mercader J. Bond Briefing: January 2011. Bond Briefing: January 2011


Vegetable Variety Reduces Lung Cancer Risk: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Sep;19(9):2278-86. Epub 2010 Aug 31. Variety in fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of lung cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Büchner FL et al. Bond Briefing: October 2010).


Calcium Supplements Raise Heart Attacks. BMJ 2010; 341:c3856; Calcium supplements in people with osteoporosis; Cleland J et al. Bond Briefing October 2010).


. Perceptions and Misconceptions of Energy Consumption: Public perceptions of energy consumption and savings; Shahzeen Z. Attari; 10.1073/pnas.1001509107 PNAS September 14, 2010 vol. 107 no. 37 16054-16059. Bond Briefing October 2010)


Dietary Pesticides (99.99% all natural): Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Oct;87(19):7777-81. Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural). Ames BN et al. Bond Briefing: September 2010)


Cephalic Phase hormone responses: Appetite. 2008; Mar-May;50(2-3):194-206. Epub 2007 Oct 24. Anticipatory physiological regulation in feeding biology: cephalic phase responses. Power ML, Schulkin J. Bond Briefing: October 2010)


Aspartame and glycemic reaction: Is Aspartame Really Safer in Reducing the Risk of Hypoglycemia During Exercise in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes? Annie Ferland et al; doi: 10.2337/dc06-1888 Diabetes Care July 2007 vol. 30 no. 7 e59. See Bond Briefing: October 2010


Cooking up a Storm: Professor Brian Ridley's debunking of the current climate-change fervor. The Salisbury Review, Autumn 2010. Bond Briefing: October 2010)


History of the ketogenic diet: Wheless JW. History and origin of the ketogenic diet (PDF). In: Stafstrom CE, Rho JM, editors. Epilepsy and the ketogenic diet. Totowa: Humana Press; 2004. Bond Briefing: April 2010


Mediterranean diets: are they environmentally responsible?  Gussow JD. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jun; 61(6 Suppl):1383S-1389S. Mediterranean diets: are they environmentally responsible? Bond Briefings: August 2009 and April 2004


. Magnesium deficiency is everywhere: The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Johnson S; Medical Hypotheses (2001) 56(2), 163–170. Bond Briefing: April 2009



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