Nutritional Anthropology

The Bond Effect
The science and art of living the way nature intended

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Nutritional Anthropology: 
Eating in harmony with our genetic programming




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There are thousands of scientific articles published every year in peer-review journals. Many more appear in  symposium reports and in accredited scientific journals and magazines. This rich resource has been extensively exploited in the development of the Natural Eating precepts. It is quite impossible to mention all those that have been influential. The following list of references contains a sample selection. They are chiefly from peer-review journals. For the sake of brevity sometimes the condensed, or paraphrased version of the title has been used. Also for the sake of brevity, the names of the journals have been reduced to an acronym. The concordance is to be found at the end of the bibliography.


In a similar vein, where there are references to published books and reports, a truncated reference is given, followed by a (P). The full publishing details will likewise be found at the end of the bibliography.



Adams et al; Vitamin D Bone Intoxication; AIM ; 1997; 127; 203-306

Allen et al; Protein Induced Hypercalciuria - a Longer Term Study; AJCN; 1979 Apr, 32:4, 741-9

Barzel et al; Excess Dietary Protein can Adversely Affect Bone; JN; 1998 Jun, 128:6, 1051-3

Bikle; Alcohol Induced Bone Disease; WRND; 1993; 73;  53-79

Boivin et al; Fluoride Helps Bone Density; WRND; 1993; 73;  80-103

Bonjour et al; Calcium Helps Prepubertal Girls; JCI ; 1997; 99:1287; 1287-1294

Boyd Eaton et al ; Calcium in Evolutionary Perspective; AJCN; 1991; 54; 281S-7S

Calvo et al; High Phosphorous, Low Calcium Diets Provoke Unfavorable PTH; JCEM; 1990 May; 70 (5):1334-40

Ekenman; Bone Density in Medieval Skeletons; CTI ; (1995); 56; 355-58

Ellis et al; Vegetarians Have Healthier Bones; AJCN; 25; June 1972; 555-8

Feskanich; Milk and Bone Fractures (Nurses Health Study); AJPH; 1997; 87; 992-997

Hegsted et al; Calcium Loss with Protein in Young Women; J Nutr; III ; 244-51; 1981

Johnson , et al; Protein Intake on Urinary and Fecal Calcium in Adult Males; JN; 100; 1425-1430

Kalkwarf et al; Calcium Supplements Don't Help Lactating Women; NEJM; 1997; 337; 523-8

Karkkainen et al; Parathyroid Hormone Response to 4 Calcium Rich Foodstuffs; AJCN; 1997; 65; 1726-30

Kerstetter JE ; et al; Protein-restricted Diet Increases PTH. AJCN; 1997 Nov, 66:5, 1188-96

Kerstetter; Protein Increases Urinary Calcium; J Nutr; 120;134-136; 1990

Licata; Monitoring Calcium Intake and Absorption; WRND; 1993; vol. 73; 27-52

Linkswiler et al; Protein Induced Hypercalciuria; Fed Proc; 1981; July 40:9, 2429-33

Lloyd et al; Caffeine Does Not Affect Bone Health in Older Women; AJCN; 1997; 65; 1826-30

Lutz; Protein Intake and Calcium Status and Acid-Base Status; AJCN; 1984; 39; 281-288

Mazes; Bone Content of North Alaskan Eskimos; AJCN; 27; 916-925; 1974

McClellan et al; Prolonged meat diets and metabolism of N, Ca and P; CC; XLVI; 1930; 669.

New et al; Fruit Best for Bone Health; AJCN; 1997; 65; 1831-9

Nilas; Calcium Intake and Osteoporosis; WRND; 1993 73; 1-26

Schuette; Protein Induced Hypercalciuria in Older People; JN, 1980 Feb, 110:2, 305-15

Simopoulos (ed.); Osteoporosis: Nutritional Aspects; WRND 1993: 73

Spencer et al; Osteoporosis, Ca Requirement; Ca Loss Factors; CGM ; 1987 May; 3 (2):389-402

Trinidad et al; Calcium Absorption in the Colon ; Nutrition; 1999; 15; 529-533

Watkins et al; Importance of Dietary Fats and Bone Building ; WRND; 1997; vol. 82; 250-59

Wood; High Calcium Diets Reduce Zinc Balance; AJCN;1997;65;1803-9

Wyshak et al; Carbonated Beverages, Calcium, Ca/P Ratio and Bone Fractures; JAH; 1994 May; 15(3): 210-5

Yuen et al; Effect of Dietary Protein on Calcium metabolism in Man; NAR; 54; 447-459

Zarkadas; Sodium Chloride is Risk Factor for Osteoporosis; AJCN; 1989 Nov; 50 (5): 1088-94

Zemel; Dietary Protein Exerts a Significant Calciuretic Effect; AJCN 1988 Sep, 48:3 (S), 880-3


CANCER (also see Endnotes to Cancer Segments – Chapter 8)

AICR; Plant Based Diets Fight Cancer; AICR Guidelines; October 1997

Cummings ; High Fruit and Vegetable and Low Meat Diets Combat Cancers; BMJ 1998;317:1636-1640

Djuric et al; Fruit and Vegetables Cut Breast Cancer Risk; JADA; 1998;98:524-528

Giovannucci ; Coffee May Cut Colon Cancer Risk; AJE; 1998;147:1043-1052.

Giovannucci; Selenium May Lower Prostate Cancer Risk; JNCI; 1998;90:1184-1185, 1219-1224.

Giovannucci; Tomatoes, Lycopene, Combat Cancer: Review of the Epidemiological Literature; JNCI; Feb. 17, 1999

Glaspy; Diet Fish Oil Reduce Breast Cancer Risk; JNCI; 1997; 89:1123-1131

Goodman ; Plant Food, Soy and Fiber Diet Cuts Endometrial Cancer; AJE; (1997;146(4):294-306)

Gronbaek et al; Wine not Carcinogenic, Beer and Spirits are; BMJ 1998;317:844-848.

Hunter et al; DDT, PCB Exposure Not Linked To Breast Cancer; NEJM; 1997;337:1253-1258,1303-1304.

Jansen ; Dietary Fiber Combats Colorectal Cancer; IJC 1999;81:174-179.

Katiyar; Tea Combats Cancer; WRND; 1996; vol. 79; 154-84

Knekt et al; Flavonoids and Antioxidants Combat Cancers; AJE; 1997; 146;223

Knekt; Selenium Deficiency is Risk for Lung Cancer; AJE; 1998;148:975-982

Kohlmeier; Fried Foods and Trans Fatty Acids Linked To Breast Cancer; CEPB; 1997; 6:705-710

Lagergren; Obesity is a  Strong Risk Factor For Cancer of the Esophagus; AIM ; 1999;130:883-890.

Leaf and Kang; n-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease; WRND; 1998; vol. 83; 24-37

Lee et al; Soy Compound has Anti Cancer Effect; JNCI; (1998;90:381-388)

Martinez ; Link Between Obesity, Exercise and Colon Cancer Found; JNCI; 1999; 91:950-953.

Michaud et al; Cruciferous Vegetables Combat Bladder Cancer in Men; JNCI; 1999; 91:605-613.

Nehlig; Coffee not Carcinogenic - review; WRND;1996; vol. 79; 185-221

Ruoslahti; How Cancer Spreads; SA; Sept 1996;42-47

Silverman et al; Obesity Raises Pancreatic Cancer Risk; JNCI; 1998;90:1710-1719.

Singh et al; White Meat Linked to Colon Cancer Risk; AJE; 1998;148:761-774.

Sutton; Phytochemicals Combat Cancer, SA; Sept 1996

Trichopoulos et al; Causes of Cancer; SA; Sept 1996; 50

Vines; Bananas Keep Cancer at Bay; NS; 25 June 1994

Zhang; Carotenoids and Dietary Vitamins Reduce Breast Cancer Risk; JNCI; 1999; 91:547-556.

Zino et al; Fruits and Vegetables Fight Cancer; BMJ; 1997;314:1787-1791




Appel L J et al; 'DASH' Study - Dietary Effect on Blood Pressure; NEJM; 1997;336;1117-24

Ellis ; Childhood Visceral Fat Predicts CVD ; AJCN; 1997; 65; 1887-8

Enos et al; Coronary Disease in US Soldiers Killed in Korea ; JAMA July 18 1953 vol. 152 no. 12

Kafatos et al; CHD and Dietary Changes in Crete :7 Countries Study Revisited; AJCN; 1997; 65; 1882-6

Khaw et al; Potassium and Stroke; NEJM; Jan 29 1987 ; 316; no.5; 235

Klatsky et al; Various Alcoholic Beverages and Risk for CAD; AJC; 1997; 80; 416-420

Lawn; SA; Lipoprotein(a) in Heart Disease; June 1992; 26-32

Leren; Oslo Diet Heart Study; Circulation; vol. XLII; Nov. 1970; 935-42

MacNamara; Coronary Artery Disease in US Combat Casualties in Vietnam; JAMA; May17; vol. 216; no7

Moore ; Pathogenesis of Arteriosclerosis; Metabolism; vol. 34; no.12; Suppl. 1 (December); 1985;13-16

Mosca et al; Antioxidant Vitamins Reduce LDL Oxidation; JACC ; 1997; 30; 392-9

Nutrition Reviews; Plant Foods Combat Atherosclerosis; NRW ; June 1977vol. 35; no 6; 148-150

Osterud et al; Marine Oils Improve Cardiovascular Indicators; Lipids; 1995 Dec; 30(12):1111-8

Pearson et al; Thrombotic Hemostatic Factors and CVD ; AJCN; 1997; 65 (s); 1674S-82S

Petroni et al; Olive Oil Phenols Inhibit Platelet Aggregation and AA Metabolism. ; WRND; 1994; 75; 169-172

Pyoraia et al; Helsinki Policemen Study: Hyperinsulinemia Predicts CHD ; Circulation; 1998; 98:398-404

Sirtori; Plant (Soybean) Protein Lowers Cholesterol; Lancet; Feb5; 1977

Sowers et al; Insulin and Hypertension; AJH; 1993; 6; 260S-270S

Stout; Overview of Insulin and Atherosclerosis; Metabolism; vol. 34; no. 12; suppl. 1; December; 1985; 7-12

Suckling; Atherosclerosis; in Encyclopedia of Human Biology; 1991; Academic Press, Inc.

Tobian et al; Salt Injures Arteries Without Necessarily Raising Blood Pressure; Hypertension; 1990; 15:900-903

Woo et al; Chinese less Susceptible than Whites to have Endothelial Dysfunction; JACC ; 1997; 30; 113-8



Andrews et al; Evolutionary Model for Feeding Behavior; in Food Acquisition & Processing of Primates (P)

Blaxter; Comparative Nutrition; in Diet of Man: Needs and Wants (P)

Blaxter; Comparative Nutrition; Zoological Society of London; 198th meeting; March 15 1968

Chivers et al; Food, Form and Function; in The Digestive System of Mammals (P)

Coe; Niche Structure and Habitats; in Food acquisition & Processing of Primates (P)

Kortland; Habitat, Foraging and Diet in Chimpanzees; in Food Acquisition and Processing (P)

Ripley ; Environmental Niches and Feeding Behavior, in Food acquisition & Processing of Primate (P)



McCance and Widdowson; The Composition of Foods [for Acid/Alkali Indices]; HMSO; 1960

McCance and Widdowson; The Composition of Foods; HMSO; 5th Edition

USDA; Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared; Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, No. 13



Abdullah et al; Vegans - Nutrient Intake and Health Status; AJCN; 34; 2464-2477 ; 1981

Chen & Xu; Chinese Dietary Patterns; WRND; 1996; vol. 79; 133-153

Darby et al; Food: The Gift of Osiris; Academic Press; 1977

Dwyer et al; Nutritional Status of Vegetarian Children; AJCN; 1982; 35; 204

Fidanza; Diets in Greece and Rome ; PFNS; vol. 3, 79-99;1979

Gjonca; Albanian Paradox; Lancet; 1997; 350; 1815-17

Johanssen; Trace Element Status and Vegetarian Diet; AJCN; 1992;55:885-90

Keys; Seven Countries Study; Harvard U.P. ; 1980

Labadarios; South African Eating Patterns; WRND; 1996; vol. 79; 70-108

Lee ; Aboriginal Diet and Health; WRND; 1996; 79; 1-52

McCarrison; A Good Diet and a Bad One; IJMR; 1926; 14; 649-54

McCarrison; Effect of Deficient Dietaries on Monkeys; BMJ; Feb 21 1921 ; 249

McCarrison; Diseases Of Faulty Nutrition; Nutrition And Health; McCarrison Society; Faber And Faber; 1982

McCarrison; National Ill Health; Nutrition and Health; The McCarrison Society; Faber and Faber; 1982

McCarrison; Nutritive Values of Wheat, Paddy and Other Grains; IJMR; 1926:14;631-639

McCarrison; Problems of Food, Especially  in India ; JRSA; Jan 2 1925 ; 137-153

Milton ; Nutritional Characteristics of Wild Primate Foods; Nutrition; 1999; vol. 15; 488-498

Naughton et al; Australian Aboriginal Meat is Very Low Fat, High in EFA’s; Lipids; 1986; Nov; 21(11): 684-90

Nestle (Gen. Editor); Mediterranean Diets: Science and Policy Implications; AJCN; June 1995; vol. 61; no. 6(S)

O’Dea ; Australian Aboriginal Traditional Diet Produces Good Vital Signs; MJA; 1988 Feb 15; 148(4); 177-80

O’Dea ; Australian Aboriginal: Traditional Diet Characteristics; PTRSLBBS; 1991 Nov 29; 334 (1270); 233-40

Paoli ; Rome : Its Life People and Customs; Chapter V - Food, Chapter VI - Banquets; Longmans; London ; 1963

Reddy et al; Vegetarians: Essential Fatty Acids in Maternal Milk; WRND; 1994; vol. 75; 102- 104

Renaud, et al; Cretan Mediterranean Diet and Prevention of CHD ; AJCN; June 1995; vol. 61; 6(S)

Renaud; Canola Oil Used for the Lyon Diet Heart Study; Personal Communication; July 22, 1997

Sanders et al; Vegans - Health Status and Fatty Acids; AJCN; 31:805-813;1978

Simopoulos et al; Purslane; WRND; 1995; vol. 77; 47-74

Sinclair ; Diet of Canadian Indians and Eskimos; Symposium Proceedings; vol. 12; 69-82;1953

Willett; What We Should Eat; Science; vol. 264; 22 April.94





Auricchio; Gut Absorption: Racial differences; in Food, Nutrition and Evolution (P)

Caspary; Physiology and Pathophysiology of Intestinal Absorption; AJCN; 1992; Jan ; 55 (1 Suppl.); 299S-308S

Corthier et al; Bacterial Toxins in G.I.; WRND; ???

Cummings et al; Effects of Carbohydrates in the Gut; AJCN; 1995; 61(S); 938S

Edwards ; Nutrition and Gut Microflora; PNS ; 1993; 52; 375-82

Lin et al; Fiber Slows Intestinal Transit; AJCN; 1997; 65; 1840-4

Macfarlane; Fermentation in the Colon ; PNS ; 1993; 52; 367-373

Marteau et al; Fate of Transiting Micro-organisms in Gut; WRND 1993; vol 74; 1-21

Mathias et al; Hyperinsulinemia, EFA deficits Promote Endometriosis and Gut Dysfunction; FS; 1998 Jul; 70(1): 81-8

McCarrison; Deficiency Disease and Gastro-intestinal Disorder; BMJ; June 19 1920 ; 822

McCarrison; Rice and Intestinal Lesions; IJMR; 1919-1920; no VII ; 7; 283 - 307

Milton ; Primate Diets and Gut Morphology; in Food and Evolution (P)

Moreau; Intestine: Immune Response to Antigens; WRND; 1993; vol. 74; 22-57

O’Keefe et al; Milk Tolerance and the Malnourished African; EJCN; 1990 Jul; 44 (7): 499-504

Roland et al; Intestinal Flora and Xenobiotic Enzymes - Health Consequences; WRND; 1993; vol. 74; 123 - 148

Rothman; Regulation of Digestive Reactions by the Pancreas; in Handbook of Physiology (P)

Russell ; Gut Changes with Age; AJCN; 1992; 55; 1203S-7S

Stone-Dorshow et al; Gas caused by Fructo-oligosaccharide; AJCN; 1987; 46; 61-5 ABS

Szylis; Effects of Carbohydrate Fermentation; WRND; 1993 vol. 74; 88-122

Truswell; Dietary Fiber and Health; WRND; 1993; vol. 72; 148-164

Vines; Junk Foods Grow Bad Bacteria; NS; Aug 8 1998



Bistrian; Protein Sparing Fast; JAMA; Nov 17; 1978; vol. 240; no. 21.

Brand-Miller; Evolutionary Aspects of Diet and Insulin Resistance; WRND; 1999; 84; 74-105

Crapo; Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon Responses to Complex Carbohydrates; AJCN; 34; 184-190;1981

Day et al; Insulin & Glucagon responses to Normal Meals; CE; 1978; 9; 443-454

Estrich et al; Hyperglycemia: Effect of Co-ingestion of Fat and Protein; Diabetes; vol. 16; no 4; 232

Fajans et al; Protein: Effect on Plasma Insulin; Diabetes; 18:523-528; Aug 1969

Flatt; Use and Storage of Carbohydrates and Fat; AJCN; 1995;61S:952S-9S

Floyd et al; Insulin Stimulated by Amino Acids; JCI ; vol 45 no 9; 1966; 1487-01

Ford et al; Weight Change and Diabetes Incidence; AJE; 1997; 146; 214-22

H:son Nilsson ; Glycogen after Glucose and Fructose; SJCLI; 33; 5-10; 1974

Hirsch; Carbohydrates: Key Issues for the Future; AJCN; 1995;61(S);996S

Jenkins et al; Low GI Foods in Hyperlipidemia; AJCN;1987;46;66-71(A)

Larner; Insulin and Glucagon; in Encyclopedia of Human Biology; vol. 4; 1991; API

Lienhard; How Cells Absorb Glucose; SA; Jan 1992.

Nevins ; Sugars - Origins and Conversions; AJCN; 1995;61(S);915S-21S

Reiser et al; Fructose: Effect on Insulin During Post-prandial Hyperglycemia; AJCN; 1987; 45; 580-7

Rolls; Carbohydrates, Fats and Satiety; AJCN; 1995; 61(S);960

Simopoulos; Fatty Acids, Hyperinsulinemia and Obesity; FRBM; vol. 17; no 4; 367-72; 1994

Sirtori et al; Diabetes: Effect of n-3 Fatty Acids; AJCN; 1997; 65; 1874-81

Spiller et al; Protein and Sugar Dose: Effect on Glucose and Insulin; AJCN;1987; 46; 474-80

Thompson ; Phytic Acid: Effect on Calcium and Blood Glucose; AJCN; 1987; 46; 467-73

UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group; Diabetes: Improved by BP Control; BMJ; vol. 317; 12 Sept 1998 ; 703

Zimmett et al; Diabetes in the South Pacific; Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews; vol. 6; no. 2; 91-124;1990



Brothwell; Diet Variation and Early Humans; Domestication of Plants and Animals (P)

Foley; Hominids, Humans and Hunter-gatherers: An Evolutionary Perspective; in Hunters and Gatherers (P)

Garn; Stature and Evolution; in Food, Nutrition and Evolution (P)

Hassan ; Size, Density and Growth Rate of Hunter-Gatherer Populations; in Population, Ecology, & Social Evolution (P)

Kappelman; Giants: Body Mass of Neanderthals; Nature;vol.387;8 May1997

Kay & Covert; Extinct Primate diets; in Food Acquisition & Processing of Primates (P)

Kretchmer; Food- a Selective Agent in Evolution; in Food Acquisition & Processing of Primates (P)

Milton ; Primate Diets and Gut Morphology; in Food and Evolution (P)

Ruff; Climate and Body Shape; JHE; 1991; 21; 81-105

Stini; Body Composition and Nutrient Reserves in Evolutionary Perspective; in Food, Nutrition and Evolution (P)

Tattersall; Out of Africa , Again and Again; SA; April 1997

Wilson et al; Recent African Genesis of Humans; SA; April ; 1992



Frezal; Food and Genetic Selection; in Food Man & Society (P)

Hamilton III ; Primate Diets and Human Over-consumption of Meat; in Food and Evolution (P)

Hawkes; How Much Food do Foragers Need?; in Food and Evolution (P)

Milton ; Diet and Primate Evolution; SA; Aug 1993; 70-77

Molleson; Eloquent Bones of Abu Hureyra ; SA; 1994 vol. 2; 71;2;70-75

Pellett; Problems in Assessment of Human Nutritional Status; in Food and Evolution: (P)

Simoons; Geography and Man's Food Quest; Food Man & Society (P)

Ucko & Dimbleby; Domestication of Plants and Animals (P)

White; Food & History; in Food, Man & Society (P)

Winterhalder; Analysis of Hunter Gatherer Diets; in: Food and Evolution (P)

Zohary, Hopf; Domestication of Plants in the Old World (P)



Angel ; Pleistocene Health; in Population, Ecology & Social Evolution (P)

Blumenschine; Carcass Consumption Sequences; JHE; 1986; 15; 639- 659

Boyd Eaton et al ; Dietary Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids During the Paleolithic; WRND; 1998; 83 12-23

Boyd Eaton ; Evolutionary Aspects of Diet; WRND;1997; vol. 81; 26-37

Boyd Eaton ; Evolutionary Perspective of Human Nutrition; JN; 126;1732-1740;1996

Boyd Eaton ; Paleolithic Nutrition; NEJM; 1985; 312; 5; 283

Cordain; Cereal Grains: Humanity’s Double-Edged Sword; WRND; 84; 19-73

Harris ; History of Human Subsistence; in Food Nutrition & Evolution (P)

Peters and O'Brien ; Hominid Plant Foods in Sub-tropical Africa ; in Digestive System in Mammals (P)

Phillipson; Paleonutrition and Modern Nutrition; WRND; 1997; vol81; 38-48

Sept; Plant Foods and Early Hominids; JHE; 1986; 15; 751-770

Simopoulos; Overview of Evolutionary Aspects of n-3 Fatty Acids in the Diet; WRND; 1998; vol. 83; 1-11

Speth; Early Hominid Hunting; JHE; 1989; 18;329-343

Wells; Prehistoric Diseases; in PFNS; vol. 1; no 11; 729-779; 1975

Yudkin: Archeology and the Nutritionist; in Domestication of Plants and Animals (P)



Chen : Evolutionary Aspects of Exercise; WRND; 1999; 84; 106-117

Cordam et al; Exercise: Evolutionary Aspects; WRND; 1997; 81; 49-60

Coyle; Substrate Utilization During Exercise; AJCN; 1995; 61S:968S-79S

Henson et al; Exercise: Effect on Resting Energy Expenditure; AJCN; 1987; 46; 893-9

Horton ; Exercise and Insulin; DMR; vol. 2; nos. 1&2; 1986

Simopoulos and Pavlou (eds); Nutrition and Fitness for Athletes; WRND; 1992; vol. 71

Simopoulos; Nutrients, Physical Activity and Genes Expression; WRND; 1997; 81; 61-71

Stallings; Nutritional Needs of the Exercising Child; WRND; 1997; 81; 90-97

American College of Sports Medicine ;  Guidelines on Exercise for Older Adults;  MSSE; 1998;30: 992-1008 .

U.S. Surgeon General; The Influence of Regular Physical Activity on Health; .July 1996



Alexander & Coursey; Yams; in; Domestication of Plants and Animals; Ucko & Dimbleby; Duckworth;1969;

Chinachoti; Carbohydrates and Sweeteners; Functionality in Foods; AJCN; 1995;61(S); 922S

Coca-Cola; Coca Cola Products: Ingredients; May 1998

Ellwood; Sugar Alcohols - Energy Content; AJCN; 1995; 62(Suppl);;1169S-74S

FDA; Caffeine Content of Different Products; US Food and Drug Administration

Flack; Emulsifying Agents in Modern Food Production (especially bread); FSTT; 1; (4)

Goldenfields; Rapeseed Oil (Goldenfields): Fatty Acid Profile; Personal Communication; June 1998

Hanover ; Fructose: Manufacture, Composition and Applications; AJCN 1993; 58(S); 724S-32S

Levin; Sugar Substitutes - Characteristics and Benefits; AJCN; 1995; 62(Suppl); 1161S-8S

Spectrum Naturals; Canola Oil (Spectrum Naturals): Fatty Acid Profiles; Customer Information; June 1999

Spectrum Naturals; Canola Spread (Spectrum Naturals): Fatty Acid Profiles; Customer Information; June 1999

Spectrum Naturals; Flax Oils (Spectrum Naturals): Fatty Acid Profiles; Customer Information; June 1999

Stegink; Aspartame: A Model for Clinical Testing; AJCN; 1987; 46; 204-15

Wesson; Canola Oil (Wesson): Fatty Acid Profile; Personal Communication;; June 1999



Hladik; Alcaloides de la Foret Dense; La Terre et La Vie; Tome XXXI; no 4 Oct-Dec; 1977

Levine Pesticides in Humans; in Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology; vol. 1, General Principles, 1991, API

PSD ; Acceptable Daily Intakes; Pesticide Safety Directorate ( UK ); Personal Communication; 18 June 1997

Waterman; Feeding and Plant Chemistry: in Food Acquisition and Processing (P)



Bornet et al G.I. and I.I. of Six Starches, Alone and in Mixed Meals;; AJCN;1987;45;45-588-95

Brand-Miller et al; G.I. of Sugary Foods: Natural vs. Added Sugar; BJN; 1995; 73; 613-623

Brand-Miller; G.I. of Rices; AJCN; 1992; 56; 1034-6

Bucalossi et al; G.I.. and I.I. of Different Carbohydrates (ice cream); DNM; 3; 143-151; 1990

Bukar; G I of Frozen Desserts; DC; 13:382-85;1990

Foster-Powel et al; G.I. Glycemic Indices: International Tables; AJCN 1995, 62, 871S-93S

Gannon et al; Insulin and Glucose Response to Milk and Fruit; Diabetologia;1986;29;784-791

Granfeldt; G I of Pasta Varieties and Pasta Bread; EJCN; (1991); 45; 489-99

Heaton; Particle Size: Effect on G.I. and I. I. .of Wheat, Maize, Oats; AJCN;1988;47;675-82

Hermansen et al; G.I. of Banana Ripeness; Diabetic Medicine; 1992; 9; 739 - 743

Holt et al; An Insulin Index of Foods; AJCN; 1997; 66:1264-76

Holt et al; Satiety: An Index of Common Foods; EJCN; 1995; 49; 675-90

Holt ; Glucose, Insulin and Satiety Responses; EJCN; 1996; 50; 788-97

Jenkins et al; G.I. Effects of Starch/Protein Interaction; AJCN; 1987; 45; 946-51

Jenkins et al; G.I. of Legumes; Diabetologia; 1983; 24; 257-264

Jenkins et al; G.I. of Traditional Wheat and Rye Bulgar and Pumpernickel Bread; AJCN;43;april 1986; 516-20

Jenkins et al; G.I. Wholemeal Compared to Whole-grain; BMJ; 297; 15 Oct 1988

Jenkins et al; Glycemic Index of Foods: AJCN; 34 362-366; 1981

Mani et al; G.I. of Conventional Indian Carbohydrate Meals; BJN;1992;68;445-450

Monge et al; G.I. and Insulin Index (I.I.) of  Two Types of Spaghetti; DNM; 3; 239-246; 1990

Vorster et al; G I of Butter Beans plus Sugars; AJCN; 1987; 45; 575-9

Westphal et al; G I Related to Mixed Glucose and Protein; AJCN; 1990:52:267-72

Wolever et al; G.I. of 102 foods; NR; vol. 14; no 5; 651- 669; 1994

Wolever et al; G.I. of Fruits and Product in Diabetics; IJFSN; 1993;43;205-212

Wolever et al; G.I. of Regular and Parboiled Rice; NR; vol. 6; 349-357;1986

Wolever; G.I. and Insulin Index of Mixed Meals; JN; 126; 2807-12; 1996

Wolever; G.I. of Pasta: Effect of Surface Area, Cooking and Protein Enrichment; Diabetes Care; 1986; 9; 401-404



Buisseret; Cow's Milk Allergy in Children; Lancet; Feb 11, 1978 .

Calder ; n-3 Fatty Acids and Immune Function; AER ; 1997; 37: 197-237

Chandra and Chandra ; Nutrition, Immune Response and Outcome; PFNS; 1986; 0(1-2):1-65

Clark et al; n-3 fatty acid in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; KI; 1989 Oct; 36 (4):653-60

Comstock ; Antioxidants, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Lupus; Annals of Rheumatic Diseases;1997;56;323-325

Coppo et al; Gluten-Free Diet Relieves Mucosal Immune System; CN; 1986; Aug; 26(2):72-82

Corman; Relationship Between Nutrition, Infection and Immunity; MCNA; 1985 May; 69(3):519-31

Endres; n-3 Fatty Acids and Human Cytokine Synthesis; Lipids; 1996 Mar; 31 Suppl: S239-42

Fernandes; Dietary Lipids and Autoimmune Disease; CII; 1994 Aug; 72(2):193-7

Garritson et al; Effect of Major Dietary Modifications on Immune System; CP; 1995 Jul-Aug; 3(4): 239-46

Gibney et al; Effects on the Immune System of n-3 Fatty Acids; EJCN; 1993 Apr; 47(4):255-9

Gogos et al; Immunodeficiency Restored by n-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin E; Cancer; 1998 Jan 15; 82(2):395-402

Hannigan; Diet and Immune Function; BJMS; 1994 Sep; 51(3): 252-9

Holman; Importance of n-3 Fatty Acids in Human Health; JN 1998 Feb; 128(Suppl):427S-433S

Hughes ; Beta-Carotene: Effect on Immune Function of Non-Smokers; JLCM; 1997 Mar; 129(3): 309-17

Imoberdorf; Designer Diets in Cancer; SCC ; 1997 Sept; 5(5):381-6

Kelley et al; Low Copper Diet Depresses Immune Function; AJCN; 1995 Aug 62(2): 412-6

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Journal Abbreviations: Concordance


Advances in Enzyme Regulation


J. of Adolescent Health


American Institute for Cancer Research


J. of Animal Science


Annals of Internal Medicine


J. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism


American J. of Cardiology


J. of Clinical Investigation


American J. of Clinical Nutrition


J. of Clinical Pathology


American J. of Epidemiology


J. of Food Composition and Analysis


American Heart J.


J. of Human Evolution


American J. of Hypertension


J. Laboratory and Clinical Medicine


American J. of Physical Anthropology


J. of Morphology


American J. of Public Health


J. of Molecular Evolution


Australian J. of Public Health


J. of Nutritional Biochemistry


Annals New York Academy of Sciences


J. of the National Cancer Institute


Archives Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine


J. of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology


Arthritis Rheumatism


J. of the Royal Society of Arts


British J. of Biomedical Science


J. Trauma


British J. of Nutrition


Kidney International


British Medical J.


Med. Clin . North Am.


Clinical Calorimetry


Medical Hypotheses


Clinical Endocrinology


Medical J. of Australia


Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention


Medicine and  Science in  Sports and Exercise


Clin. Geriatr. Med.


Nutritional Abstract Reviews


Clinical Immunology. Immunopathology


Norwegian J. of Agricultural Sciences


Canadian J. of Physiology and Pharmacology


Nutrition Research


Clinical Nephrology


Nutrition Review


Cancer Practice


New Scientist


Calcified. Tissue International


Progress in Food and Nutritional Science


Diabetes Care


Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids


Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolism


Proceedings of the Nutrition Society


Early Human Development


Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med


European J. of Clinical Nutrition


Phil Trans Royal Society of London   - Biological Sciences


Free Radical Biology & Medicine


Scientific American


Fertil Steril




Food Science and Technology Today


Surg. Clin. North Am.


International J. of Cancer


Scandinavian J. of Clinical Laboratory Investigation


International J. of Food Sciences and Nutrition


Wien Klin . Wochenschr.


Indian J. of Medical Research


World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics


International J. of Organic Evolution




J. of Nutrition




J. of the American College of Cardiology




J. of the American Dietetic Association








Academic Press Inc








Her Majesty’s Stationery Office




Plenum Press




Rodale Press




Temple University Press




University of Cambridge









Diet of Man: Needs and Wants; Symposium, Bath , UK ; 17-22 April 1977; ed. Yudkin; 1978

Digestive System of Mammals; D J Chivers, P Langer ; Press Syndicate; University of Cambridge ; 1994

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Food, Nutrition and Evolution; Walcher & Kretchmer; Masson; 1981

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Life Span Prolongation; Frolkis and Muradian; CRC Press; Boca Raton , Florida ; 1991

Population, Ecology, & Social Evolution.; Polgar; Mouton; 1975


Chapter 12


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